Despite the popularity of sponsorship-linked marketing programs, we know little about how firms form sponsorship policies. This article describes a corporate identity-sponsorship policy link and offers empirical support for it via a mixed method research design. Content analysis of 146 Fortune 500 companies’ online sponsorship policies and mission statements is followed by cluster, factor and multinomial regression techniques. Results show that corporate identity, as reflected in mission statements, matters to sponsorship policy. Specifically, companies emphasizing financial success in their mission statements prefer to sponsor individual athletes, education, the environment and health-related activities. Alternatively, companies stressing the importance of employees demonstrate a propensity to sponsor team sports, entertainment, religious, community, charity and business related activities. Reasons for these strategic differences are discussed.
Stephanie Cunningham, T. Bettina Cornwell and Leonard V. Coote
Jan Boehmer and Stephen Lacy
This study analyzes how interactivity on Facebook relates to users’ browsing behaviors such as clicking a link, visiting a Web site, clicking articles on a Web site, and spending time on a sports news Web site. Regression analyses of 502 Facebook posts and the corresponding news articles show that the number of individuals who clicked on a link is not related to higher levels of interactivity, but an increase in interactivity did affect the number of overall visits generated. In addition, higher levels of interactivity had a slight negative correlation with the number of pages visited and the time spent on an organization’s Web site. Implications for the training and work routines of sport communication professionals in organizations, journalism, and public relations are discussed.
Joon Kyoung Kim, Holly K. Ott, Kevin Hull and Minhee Choi
This study examined the impact of exposure to corporate social responsibility (CSR) messages on individuals’ attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a Major League Baseball (MLB) team’s CSR efforts. Using a 2 (information source: team source or a third-party source) × 2 (CSR initiatives: efforts to help cancer patients or military appreciation recognition) with two nonfactorial control conditions (team source or a third-party source) experimental design, this study aims to identify how factors such as information source, perceived sincerity, and different types of CSR activities impact a MLB team’s CSR messaging on social media. Path analysis was used to examine significant paths between variables; results indicated that CSR messages generated a halo effect, thus providing implications for how MLB teams should develop CSR strategies and most effectively communicate about these efforts. Theoretical and practical implications of study results are discussed.
Molly Hayes Sauder and Michael Mudrick
the classroom with practical application and skill development in a professional setting” ( True, 2010 , p. 1). As such, internships may be viewed as “a triangular relationship” entered into by a student, a sponsoring sport organization, and an academic institution, with each of these three parties
James E. Johnson, Robert M. Turick, Michael F. Dalgety, Khirey B. Walker, Eric L. Klosterman and Anya T. Eicher
from basic to complex ( Park, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2008 ). Courses considered rigorous are thought to include high-quality materials at the high end of students’ current comprehension levels to encourage relationships among ideas rather than memorization of rote material ( Graham & Essex, 2001 ). This
Ceyda Mumcu and Gil Fried
senior director of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Analytics at Major League Soccer (MLS), was going to be in class as a guest speaker to discuss how MLS uses CRM and analytics to make marketing decisions. I reviewed the information my professor shared on CRM and market research that night
Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, Regina G. Presley and Chelsea C. Police
. Review of Literature Learning Styles Research on learning styles dates back to the late 19th century, during which time most research examined the relationship between memory and oral or visual teaching methods ( Zapalska & Brozik, 2006 ). Later research suggested different cognitive styles, and habitual
Sarah Stokowski, Bo Li, Benjamin D. Goss, Shelby Hutchens and Megan Turk
and as though they are part of something greater than themselves ( Pink, 2009 ). This feeling is fostered by building relationships with other people, connecting to an idea, or accomplishing a commonly held goal ( Lyness et al., 2013 ). Motivation as a Continuum Self-determination theory theorizes
Marie Hardin, Bu Zhong and Erin Whiteside
U.S. sports operations have been described as newsroom “toy departments,” at least partly because of their deviation from journalistic norms. Recently, however, more attention has focused on issues of ethics and professionalism; the failure of sports journalists to adequately cover steroid use in Major League Baseball has also directed critical attention to their roles and motives. This study, through a telephone survey of journalists in U.S. newsrooms, examines sports reporters’ practices, beliefs, and attitudes in regard to ethics and professionalism and how their ethics and practice relate. Results indicate that reporters’ attitudes toward issues such as voting in polls, taking free tickets, gambling, and becoming friends with sources are related to their views of public-service or investigative journalism. In addition, friendships with sources are linked to values stereotypically associated with sports as a toy-department occupation. These results suggest that adherence to ethical standards is linked to an outlook that embraces sports coverage as public service.
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Molly Hayes Sauder and Cheryl R. Rode
found that the quality of faculty members’ relationships with their department head had a significant effect on job satisfaction ( Byrne, Chughtai, Flood, & Willis, 2012 ). In a thorough review of multiple studies from academia, Sabagh, Hall, and Saroyan ( 2018 ) found that, in general, higher levels of