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James E. Johnson, Robert M. Turick, Michael F. Dalgety, Khirey B. Walker, Eric L. Klosterman and Anya T. Eicher

from basic to complex ( Park, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2008 ). Courses considered rigorous are thought to include high-quality materials at the high end of students’ current comprehension levels to encourage relationships among ideas rather than memorization of rote material ( Graham & Essex, 2001 ). This

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Ceyda Mumcu and Gil Fried

senior director of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Analytics at Major League Soccer (MLS), was going to be in class as a guest speaker to discuss how MLS uses CRM and analytics to make marketing decisions. I reviewed the information my professor shared on CRM and market research that night

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Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, Regina G. Presley and Chelsea C. Police

. Review of Literature Learning Styles Research on learning styles dates back to the late 19th century, during which time most research examined the relationship between memory and oral or visual teaching methods ( Zapalska & Brozik, 2006 ). Later research suggested different cognitive styles, and habitual

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Stephen W. Dittmore, G. Clayton Stoldt and T. Christopher Greenwell

This case study explores the use a Major League Baseball team’s organizational weblog. Organizational weblogs are forums for the 2-way exchange of information and commentary between an organization and its publics. Most sport organizations, however, have yet to embrace the weblog as a form of organizational communication. Recent research suggests a greater need to understand how sport organizations might use weblogs to outreach to target audiences from a communications perspective. This study assesses whether readers perceive an organization’s official weblog to be an effective form of 2-way communication and profiles the readers of an organizational weblog based on demographics, consumption patterns, and points of attachment. Results showed that readers perceived the organizational weblog to be highly conversational and effective at communicating organizational commitment. In addition, readers were voracious media consumers of the team’s games, repeat ticket customers, and highly identified, both with the sport and with the team.

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Jan Boehmer and Stephen Lacy

This study analyzes how interactivity on Facebook relates to users’ browsing behaviors such as clicking a link, visiting a Web site, clicking articles on a Web site, and spending time on a sports news Web site. Regression analyses of 502 Facebook posts and the corresponding news articles show that the number of individuals who clicked on a link is not related to higher levels of interactivity, but an increase in interactivity did affect the number of overall visits generated. In addition, higher levels of interactivity had a slight negative correlation with the number of pages visited and the time spent on an organization’s Web site. Implications for the training and work routines of sport communication professionals in organizations, journalism, and public relations are discussed.

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Stephen R. McDaniel

Some research suggests that males and females differ in terms of their enjoyment from viewing televised sports characterized as either violent combative (e.g., football and hockey), violent aggressive (e.g., basketball and soccer), or stylistic (e.g., figure skating and gymnastics) in nature. However, no theory-based explanation for the above differences has been supported. Zeckerman's (1994) theory of sensation seeking offers face validity in this context, as gender differences have been associated with the personality trait as has the consumption of violent media and contact sports (Krcmar & Green, 1999; Schroth, 1994). A snowball quota sample (n = 305) was employed to investigate adults' (18+) interest in viewing different types of sports telecasts (i.e., combative and stylistic). Four hypotheses were formulated based on the existing literature, with two of them being fully supported and a third receiving limited support. Among the key results, adult respondents' interests in viewing telecasts of combative or stylistic sports differed significantly by gender. In addition, reported interest in watching coverage of violent combative sports was positively related to sensation seeking for both sexes. Meanwhile, interest in viewing stylistic sports on television was a negative function of the trait for females. The theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed, along with directions for future research in this area.

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Joon Kyoung Kim, Holly K. Ott, Kevin Hull and Minhee Choi

This study examined the impact of exposure to corporate social responsibility (CSR) messages on individuals’ attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a Major League Baseball (MLB) team’s CSR efforts. Using a 2 (information source: team source or a third-party source) × 2 (CSR initiatives: efforts to help cancer patients or military appreciation recognition) with two nonfactorial control conditions (team source or a third-party source) experimental design, this study aims to identify how factors such as information source, perceived sincerity, and different types of CSR activities impact a MLB team’s CSR messaging on social media. Path analysis was used to examine significant paths between variables; results indicated that CSR messages generated a halo effect, thus providing implications for how MLB teams should develop CSR strategies and most effectively communicate about these efforts. Theoretical and practical implications of study results are discussed.

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Stephanie Cunningham, T. Bettina Cornwell and Leonard V. Coote

Despite the popularity of sponsorship-linked marketing programs, we know little about how firms form sponsorship policies. This article describes a corporate identity-sponsorship policy link and offers empirical support for it via a mixed method research design. Content analysis of 146 Fortune 500 companies’ online sponsorship policies and mission statements is followed by cluster, factor and multinomial regression techniques. Results show that corporate identity, as reflected in mission statements, matters to sponsorship policy. Specifically, companies emphasizing financial success in their mission statements prefer to sponsor individual athletes, education, the environment and health-related activities. Alternatively, companies stressing the importance of employees demonstrate a propensity to sponsor team sports, entertainment, religious, community, charity and business related activities. Reasons for these strategic differences are discussed.

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Sarah Stokowski, Bo Li, Benjamin D. Goss, Shelby Hutchens and Megan Turk

and as though they are part of something greater than themselves ( Pink, 2009 ). This feeling is fostered by building relationships with other people, connecting to an idea, or accomplishing a commonly held goal ( Lyness et al., 2013 ). Motivation as a Continuum Self-determination theory theorizes

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Molly Hayes Sauder and Cheryl R. Rode

found that the quality of faculty members’ relationships with their department head had a significant effect on job satisfaction ( Byrne, Chughtai, Flood, & Willis, 2012 ). In a thorough review of multiple studies from academia, Sabagh, Hall, and Saroyan ( 2018 ) found that, in general, higher levels of