Some research suggests that males and females differ in terms of their enjoyment from viewing televised sports characterized as either violent combative (e.g., football and hockey), violent aggressive (e.g., basketball and soccer), or stylistic (e.g., figure skating and gymnastics) in nature. However, no theory-based explanation for the above differences has been supported. Zeckerman's (1994) theory of sensation seeking offers face validity in this context, as gender differences have been associated with the personality trait as has the consumption of violent media and contact sports (Krcmar & Green, 1999; Schroth, 1994). A snowball quota sample (n = 305) was employed to investigate adults' (18+) interest in viewing different types of sports telecasts (i.e., combative and stylistic). Four hypotheses were formulated based on the existing literature, with two of them being fully supported and a third receiving limited support. Among the key results, adult respondents' interests in viewing telecasts of combative or stylistic sports differed significantly by gender. In addition, reported interest in watching coverage of violent combative sports was positively related to sensation seeking for both sexes. Meanwhile, interest in viewing stylistic sports on television was a negative function of the trait for females. The theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed, along with directions for future research in this area.
Jan Boehmer and Stephen Lacy
This study analyzes how interactivity on Facebook relates to users’ browsing behaviors such as clicking a link, visiting a Web site, clicking articles on a Web site, and spending time on a sports news Web site. Regression analyses of 502 Facebook posts and the corresponding news articles show that the number of individuals who clicked on a link is not related to higher levels of interactivity, but an increase in interactivity did affect the number of overall visits generated. In addition, higher levels of interactivity had a slight negative correlation with the number of pages visited and the time spent on an organization’s Web site. Implications for the training and work routines of sport communication professionals in organizations, journalism, and public relations are discussed.
Marie Hardin, Bu Zhong and Erin Whiteside
U.S. sports operations have been described as newsroom “toy departments,” at least partly because of their deviation from journalistic norms. Recently, however, more attention has focused on issues of ethics and professionalism; the failure of sports journalists to adequately cover steroid use in Major League Baseball has also directed critical attention to their roles and motives. This study, through a telephone survey of journalists in U.S. newsrooms, examines sports reporters’ practices, beliefs, and attitudes in regard to ethics and professionalism and how their ethics and practice relate. Results indicate that reporters’ attitudes toward issues such as voting in polls, taking free tickets, gambling, and becoming friends with sources are related to their views of public-service or investigative journalism. In addition, friendships with sources are linked to values stereotypically associated with sports as a toy-department occupation. These results suggest that adherence to ethical standards is linked to an outlook that embraces sports coverage as public service.
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Matt R. Huml and Marlene A. Dixon
The relationship between employee and job can be tenuous. For some, having a job is perceived as a “necessary evil” that allows the individual to acquire basic necessities and dispensable income to pursue desired activities. On the other end of the spectrum, employees can become completely engulfed
Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg and Paul Turner
; Wang & Zhou, 2015 ). For sport organizations, IMC plays a role in establishing and enhancing relationships to achieve goals including attracting and retaining members, and increasing participation, and has therefore been posited as a solution to problems associated with resource generation in sport
Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
obtains the right to associate itself with the event ( Becker-Olsen & Simmons, 2002 ; Cornwell, Weeks, & Roy, 2005 ). Hence, sponsorship requires a contractual relationship that secures rights in addition to leveraging those rights through relevant activations, mainly through advertising. As a
Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent
constructs. For instance, Farrell et al.’s ( 1998 ) study was primarily focused on event volunteer motivation but also measured its relationship to satisfaction. By contrast, MacLean and Hamm ( 2007 ) examined commitment, motivation, and intentions to remain among sport event volunteers (for more examples
Laura J. Burton, Jon Welty Peachey and Janelle E. Wells
other-centered service ( Neubert, Hunter, & Tolentino, 2016 ). Servant leadership is different than other approaches to leadership as it explicitly emphasizes the needs of followers, and also because this approach emphasizes the ideal of service in the relationship between leader and follower ( van
Per G. Svensson, Seungmin Kang and Jae-Pil Ha
develop a set of hypotheses regarding the collective relationships between human resources capacity, shared leadership, organizational performance, and innovative work behavior. We test our proposed model through structural equation modeling, which allows us to get more adequate estimates of the direct
Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Kyle B. Heuett, Tarkington J. Newman and Shea M. Brgoch
), with team members connected through their relationships and interactions within the team. The properties of these social networks have been found to explain team outcomes ( Sparrowe, Liden, Wayne, & Kraimer, 2011 ). Moreover, the social-network structure of teams is considered an important determinant