Despite the popularity of sponsorship-linked marketing programs, we know little about how firms form sponsorship policies. This article describes a corporate identity-sponsorship policy link and offers empirical support for it via a mixed method research design. Content analysis of 146 Fortune 500 companies’ online sponsorship policies and mission statements is followed by cluster, factor and multinomial regression techniques. Results show that corporate identity, as reflected in mission statements, matters to sponsorship policy. Specifically, companies emphasizing financial success in their mission statements prefer to sponsor individual athletes, education, the environment and health-related activities. Alternatively, companies stressing the importance of employees demonstrate a propensity to sponsor team sports, entertainment, religious, community, charity and business related activities. Reasons for these strategic differences are discussed.
Stephanie Cunningham, T. Bettina Cornwell and Leonard V. Coote
Joon Kyoung Kim, Holly K. Ott, Kevin Hull and Minhee Choi
This study examined the impact of exposure to corporate social responsibility (CSR) messages on individuals’ attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a Major League Baseball (MLB) team’s CSR efforts. Using a 2 (information source: team source or a third-party source) × 2 (CSR initiatives: efforts to help cancer patients or military appreciation recognition) with two nonfactorial control conditions (team source or a third-party source) experimental design, this study aims to identify how factors such as information source, perceived sincerity, and different types of CSR activities impact a MLB team’s CSR messaging on social media. Path analysis was used to examine significant paths between variables; results indicated that CSR messages generated a halo effect, thus providing implications for how MLB teams should develop CSR strategies and most effectively communicate about these efforts. Theoretical and practical implications of study results are discussed.
Marie Hardin, Bu Zhong and Erin Whiteside
U.S. sports operations have been described as newsroom “toy departments,” at least partly because of their deviation from journalistic norms. Recently, however, more attention has focused on issues of ethics and professionalism; the failure of sports journalists to adequately cover steroid use in Major League Baseball has also directed critical attention to their roles and motives. This study, through a telephone survey of journalists in U.S. newsrooms, examines sports reporters’ practices, beliefs, and attitudes in regard to ethics and professionalism and how their ethics and practice relate. Results indicate that reporters’ attitudes toward issues such as voting in polls, taking free tickets, gambling, and becoming friends with sources are related to their views of public-service or investigative journalism. In addition, friendships with sources are linked to values stereotypically associated with sports as a toy-department occupation. These results suggest that adherence to ethical standards is linked to an outlook that embraces sports coverage as public service.
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Matt R. Huml and Marlene A. Dixon
The relationship between employee and job can be tenuous. For some, having a job is perceived as a “necessary evil” that allows the individual to acquire basic necessities and dispensable income to pursue desired activities. On the other end of the spectrum, employees can become completely engulfed
Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg and Paul Turner
; Wang & Zhou, 2015 ). For sport organizations, IMC plays a role in establishing and enhancing relationships to achieve goals including attracting and retaining members, and increasing participation, and has therefore been posited as a solution to problems associated with resource generation in sport
Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
obtains the right to associate itself with the event ( Becker-Olsen & Simmons, 2002 ; Cornwell, Weeks, & Roy, 2005 ). Hence, sponsorship requires a contractual relationship that secures rights in addition to leveraging those rights through relevant activations, mainly through advertising. As a
Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent
constructs. For instance, Farrell et al.’s ( 1998 ) study was primarily focused on event volunteer motivation but also measured its relationship to satisfaction. By contrast, MacLean and Hamm ( 2007 ) examined commitment, motivation, and intentions to remain among sport event volunteers (for more examples
Laura J. Burton, Jon Welty Peachey and Janelle E. Wells
other-centered service ( Neubert, Hunter, & Tolentino, 2016 ). Servant leadership is different than other approaches to leadership as it explicitly emphasizes the needs of followers, and also because this approach emphasizes the ideal of service in the relationship between leader and follower ( van
Per G. Svensson, Seungmin Kang and Jae-Pil Ha
develop a set of hypotheses regarding the collective relationships between human resources capacity, shared leadership, organizational performance, and innovative work behavior. We test our proposed model through structural equation modeling, which allows us to get more adequate estimates of the direct
Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Kyle B. Heuett, Tarkington J. Newman and Shea M. Brgoch
), with team members connected through their relationships and interactions within the team. The properties of these social networks have been found to explain team outcomes ( Sparrowe, Liden, Wayne, & Kraimer, 2011 ). Moreover, the social-network structure of teams is considered an important determinant