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Joseph H. Moore

football fans in England. Specifically, Cleland sought evidence to demonstrate how the new interactive model of media–audience engagement has affected the relationship. Cleland defined “active” fans as those who use media texts (responding to radio and TV phone-in shows, those who respond to comment posts

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Todd M. Manini, Marvin Druger and Lori Ploutz-Snyder

The purposes of this study were to determine current opinions of strength exercise among older adults and whether knowledge of recommended protocols differs between strength-exercise participants and nonparticipants. One hundred twenty-nine older adults (77.5 ± 8.6 years) responded to questions about their opinions, experiences, and knowledge of strength-exercise recommendations. Some misconceptions were identified in the sample, with 48.4% of participants responding “no” to “strength training increases muscle mass,” 45% responding “no” to “increasing weight is more important than number of repetitions for building strength,” and 37% responding that walking is more effective than lifting weights at building muscle strength. The number of correct responses was related to the number of years in school (semipartial r 2 = .046). More education is needed about the benefits and recommendations to ensure proper use of current strength-exercise protocols among older adults.

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Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Paul M. Pedersen

victim who was punched by another spectator fell to the ground and sustained a skull fracture ( Anderson, 2019 ). Despite such real-world instances of SDB and scholarly recognition of the SDB issue, limited research has been conducted to address how spectators respond to—and cope with—others’ SDB. The

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Ilkka Heinonen, Jukka Kemppainen, Toshihiko Fujimoto, Juhani Knuuti and Kari K. Kalliokoski

-Czernik, 2012 ). Human bone marrow circulation responds to acute exercise ( Heinonen et al., 2013a , 2013b ) and local heat stress ( Heinonen et al., 2011a ), although to a lesser degree than in contracting skeletal muscles ( Heinonen et al., 2007 , 2010a , 2011b , 2015 ). In addition to its perfusion, the

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Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

653 participants responded to student questionnaires in the fifth grade (about 10.5 y old), and 292 responded to student questionnaires in the ninth grade (about 14.7 y old). Measures Student questionnaires that measured potential influences on change in PA were administered annually in a school

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Rebecca Reynolds, Santhya and David Menzies

the NPAA. Member organizations were given 4 weeks to respond to the survey. The questions asked were mainly open ended, such as “What are the current projects/programs/initiatives related to physical activity that your organization is heading or is involved in?” and “What are the 3 areas of priority

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Cédric Roure and Denis Pasco

demands influenced students’ SI. Seventh-to-ninth grade students participated in four basketball learning tasks representing various physical (high vs low) and cognitive (high vs low) demands. Immediately after experiencing these four learning tasks, students responded to the SI scale. Results indicated

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Sarah Stokowski, Bo Li, Benjamin D. Goss, Shelby Hutchens and Megan Turk

researchers’ e-mail addresses. To increase the response rate, a reminder e-mail was sent 2 weeks after the first e-mail. A total of 193 sport management faculty responded to the survey, for a response rate of 16.08%. Due to the distribution method of the survey (e-mail), the response rate is lower than other

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Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill and Simon A. Jobson

strength of their feelings toward the following questions: (A) “I receive sufficient feedback from the data I enter into AER,” (B) “When there are meaningful changes in my TM scores, action is taken,” (C) “I respond honestly to TM questions,” and (D) “TM and feedback help optimize my training and

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Yasmín Ezzatvar, Joaquín Calatayud, Lars L. Andersen and José Casaña

–shoulder, arm–hand, and back), subjects reported the presence of MP responding the question “Have you had trouble (ache, pain, discomfort) in any of the following body areas for at least 24 hours during the last month?” with “yes” or “no” as possible options. When the answer was “yes,” they were asked to rate