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Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga and Stefano Lazzer


To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race.


Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c), and aerial time (t a) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert), and leg stiffness (k leg) were then estimated.


Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean –5.6% ± 0.3%, P < .05), while t c increased after 4 h 30 min of running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (–6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean –29.2% and –5.1%, respectively, P < .05). Finally, SL decreased significantly (–5.1%, P = .010) during the last hour of the race.


Most changes occurred after 4 h continuous self-paced running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

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Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan and Jean-Benoit Morin

There is a large body of research highlighting the importance of monitoring running mechanics for both performance and injury prevention purposes. 1 – 4 From the performance enhancement perspective, the measurement of leg stiffness, vertical oscillation of the center of mass, and ground contact

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Noora J. Ronkainen, Amanda Shuman and Lin Xu

In the last half decade, China has seen a phenomenal boom in leisure running, known colloquially as a “running craze” ( paobu re ) or “marathon fever” ( malasong re ). Although there have existed a few running events in China for decades such as the Beijing marathon, organised since 1981 ( http

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Caroline Divert, Heiner Baur, Guillaume Mornieux, Frank Mayer and Alain Belli

When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m·s–1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe.

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Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole and Brian Dawson

reported between running intensity and number of interchanges across match-play in elite male footballers. 3 Moreover, these researchers demonstrated that in combination with increased rotations, players who performed better on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) completed the match

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Volker Scheer, Tanja I. Janssen, Solveig Vieluf and Hans-Christian Heitkamp

Trail running is a popular sport that has recently been recognized by the International Association of the Athletics Federations as a new running discipline hosting its own trail world championships ( ). It is therefore of interest to athletes, coaches, and researchers to find training

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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Nathan J. Pickworth, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins

Injuries adversely affect team success, 1 financial revenue, 2 and performance appraisals of science and medicine staff in team sport. 3 In rugby league players, greater high-intensity intermittent running ability is associated with (1) a higher probability of completing more matches injury free

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Kevin Deschamps, Giovanni Matricali, Maarten Eerdekens, Sander Wuite, Alberto Leardini and Filip Staes

In foot mechanics, bone structure and joint kinematics have long been considered risk factors for foot and lower-limb running injuries, 1 , 2 but the role of foot kinetics has been largely overlooked. The foot mechanics result from a complex interaction between its many bony segments and joints

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Mohamed S. Fessi, Fayçal Farhat, Alexandre Dellal, James J. Malone and Wassim Moalla

Physical performance in elite soccer matches is characterized by high-intensity running in both linear and multiple directions, with recovery periods differing in nature and duration. 1 – 3 The most decisive actions in soccer are often preceded by changes of pace and occur after sprints

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Heather K. Vincent, Laura A. Zdziarski, Kyle Fallgatter, Giorgio Negron, Cong Chen, Trevor Leavitt, MaryBeth Horodyski, Joseph G. Wasser and Kevin R. Vincent

. Among methods to carry fluids, handheld bottles or bottles carried in belt holders on the waist are common. Considerable efforts have been made to identify the optimal hydration protocols during ultralong running events. 4 – 7 However, there is a paucity of evidence on the impact of carrying water or