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Kevin Deschamps, Giovanni Matricali, Maarten Eerdekens, Sander Wuite, Alberto Leardini and Filip Staes

In foot mechanics, bone structure and joint kinematics have long been considered risk factors for foot and lower-limb running injuries, 1 , 2 but the role of foot kinetics has been largely overlooked. The foot mechanics result from a complex interaction between its many bony segments and joints

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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

). Although all outcome variables can be regarded as important, some of them (e.g., speed or perceived exertion) can be easily influenced by participants’ motivation to perform well on the task making it necessary to control for other influences (e.g., motivation). Therefore, running economy is a favorable

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Mohamed S. Fessi, Fayçal Farhat, Alexandre Dellal, James J. Malone and Wassim Moalla

Physical performance in elite soccer matches is characterized by high-intensity running in both linear and multiple directions, with recovery periods differing in nature and duration. 1 – 3 The most decisive actions in soccer are often preceded by changes of pace and occur after sprints

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Heather K. Vincent, Laura A. Zdziarski, Kyle Fallgatter, Giorgio Negron, Cong Chen, Trevor Leavitt, MaryBeth Horodyski, Joseph G. Wasser and Kevin R. Vincent

. Among methods to carry fluids, handheld bottles or bottles carried in belt holders on the waist are common. Considerable efforts have been made to identify the optimal hydration protocols during ultralong running events. 4 – 7 However, there is a paucity of evidence on the impact of carrying water or

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Robert N. Marshall, David J. Paterson and Paul Glendining

Approximately 25 runners were filmed at the 24.9- and 41.0-km points in the 1987 Everest Marathon. Their finishing times ranged from 4:53:10 to 7:14:37. Leg length, step lengths, step frequencies, knee angles at impact, and ankle-to-hip angles at impact were determined for each runner who appeared in both films (N = 20). The slopes at the two filming sites were −21.8% and −26.8%, considerably steeper gradients than have previously been studied. When compared to data from other downhill running studies at −10% gradient, these athletes had slightly slower speeds, shorter step lengths, straighter legs on impact, and greater minimum knee angles during stance. The results suggest that the runners used a variety of techniques to minimize the effects of ground impact while still allowing for the competitive aspect of the race, considerable variation in footing and terrain, and personal safety.

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Oren Tirosh, Guy Orland, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Nili Steinberg

During human running, the body is subjected to high ground impact loads at the initial portion of the support phase of each step that are attenuated as they travel through the body to the head. These impacts have magnitudes up to 2.32 body weights. 1 Similarly, these loads are further transmitted

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S. Oswald, Cathleen N. Brown and Kathy J. Simpson

axial rotation. 8 For treadmill running, compared to healthy controls, Kakar and colleagues found that SF-AIS individuals demonstrated less lateral flexion of the upper trunk 9 and reduced ankle plantar flexion displacement, though a greater hip flexion angle during the stance phase. 11 SF

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Peter J. Whalley, Chey G. Dearing and Carl D. Paton

effects. 14 To our knowledge, there is currently no published research comparing the effects of different caffeine delivery forms on exercise performance. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of different forms of caffeine supplementation on 5-km running

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Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor and John Hough

cyclists, its application within other athletes (eg, runners) is evidently lacking. Given a 30-minute running protocol at 80% of maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) has been reported to elevate plasma cortisol by ∼20%, 10 and a running test to exhaustion at 100% ventilatory threshold increased plasma

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Edward J. Quigley and James G. Richards

This study investigated the mechanical effects that cycling has on running style which may explain the discomfort associated with the transition from cycling to running. The joint angles, angular velocities, reaction forces, and reaction moments of the left and right hip, knee, and ankle joints as well as stance time, flight time, stride length, and maximum vertical displacement of the center of gravity were measured using high-speed video and ground reaction force data. Data were collected from 11 competitive biathletes and triathletes. Each subject's running mechanics were determined from 10 trials for each of three conditions: (a) unfatigued, (b) immediately following 30 min of running, and (c) immediately following 30 min of bicycling. The results indicate that a person's running mechanics, as described by the variables above, are virtually unchanged between each of the three conditions. Therefore, awkwardness of the bicycle-to-run transition may not be related to a change in running mechanics.