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Kelly R. Evenson, Semra A. Aytur, Sara B. Satinsky, Zachary Y. Kerr and Daniel A. Rodríguez

Background:

We surveyed North Carolina (NC) municipalities to document the presence of municipal walking- and bicycling-related projects, programs, and policies; to describe whether prevalence of these elements differed if recommended in a plan; and to characterize differences between urban and rural municipalities.

Methods:

We surveyed all municipalities with ≥ 5000 persons (n = 121) and sampled municipalities with < 5000 persons (216/420), with a response rate of 54% (183/337). Responses were weighted to account for the sampling design.

Results:

From a list provided, staff reported on their municipality’s use of walking- and bicycling-related elements (8 infrastructure projects, 9 programs, and 14 policies). The most commonly reported were projects on sidewalks (53%), streetscape improvements (51%), bicycle/walking paths (40%); programs for cultural/recreational/health (25%), general promotional activities (24%), Safe Routes to School (24%), and law enforcement (24%); and policies on maintenance (64%), new facility construction (57%), and restricted automobile speed or access (45%). Nearly all projects, programs, or policies reported were more likely if included in a plan and more prevalent in urban than rural municipalities.

Conclusion:

These results provide cross-sectional support that plans facilitate the implementation of walking and bicycling elements, and that rural municipalities plan and implement these elements less often than urban municipalities.

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Pasmore Malambo, Andre P. Kengne, Estelle V. Lambert, Anniza De Villiers and Thandi Puoane

environment, and overweight/obesity in free-living South African adults. Methods Study Design and Population This cross-sectional study uses data from the Cape Town (urban) and Mount Frere (rural) sites of the global Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. 19 During baseline evaluation conducted in 2008

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Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, Adam Thompson and John Moraros

Background:

Youth in Canada age 5−17 years require a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) everyday. Regrettably, there are no published studies on levels of PA within on-reserve First Nations youth in Canada that use validated surveys. The objective was to determine what percentage of Saskatoon Tribal Council (STC) First Nations on-reserve youth met the Canadian Society for Exercise and Physiology’s (CSEP) definition for being physically active, and what influences are associated with meeting this standard.

Methods:

Students in grades 5−8 within the STC were asked to complete a youth health survey.

Results:

Only 7.4% of STC youth met CSEP’s PA standard. Male youth (13.9%) were more likely to meet the PA standard than female youth (4.1%). Having parents who watch youth participate and who provide transportation to classes, having enough equipment at home, having friends bike or walk to school, participating in physical activity headed by a coach or instructor, and participating in structured classes are associated with meeting the standard.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of meeting the PA standard among on-reserve First Nations youth is very low. More research is needed to identify independent risk indicators of being physically inactive.

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Maria E. Hermosillo-Gallardo, Russell Jago and Simon J. Sebire

Background:

Approximately 17.4% of people in Mexico self-report physical activity levels below the World Health Organization’s guidelines and an average sedentary time of 16 hours per day.1 Low physical activity has been associated with noncommunicable disease risk factors and previous research suggests that urbanicity might be an important determinant of physical activity. The aim of this study was to measure urbanicity in Mexico and assess if it is associated with physical activity and sitting time.

Methods:

A sample of 2880 men and 4211 women aged 20 to 69 was taken from the 2012 Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity, sitting time and urbanicity; adjusting for sex, education level, socioeconomic status and Body Mass Index. The urbanicity score and the 7 urbanicity subscores were estimated from the CENSUS 2010.

Results:

The subscores of demographic, economic activity, diversity and communication were negatively associated with physical activity. Sitting time was positively associated with the overall urbanicity, and the demographic and health subscores.

Conclusions:

There was evidence of associations between urbanicity and physical activity in Mexico.

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Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts, Michael B. Edwards, Justin B. Moore, Kindal A. Shores, Katrina Drowatzky DuBose and David McGranahan

Background:

Little is known about the associations between natural amenities, recreation facility density, and obesity, at a national level. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine associations between county-level natural amenities, density of recreation facilities, and obesity prevalence among United States counties.

Methods:

Data were obtained from a compilation of sources within the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Food Environment Atlas. Independent variables of interest were the natural amenities scale and recreation facilities per capita. The dependent variable was county-level obesity prevalence. Potential covariates included a measure of county-level percent Black residents, percent Hispanic residents, median age, and median household income. All models were stratified by population loss, persistent poverty, and metro status. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and natural amenities and recreation facilities, with “state” as a random effects second level variable.

Results:

There were statistically significant negative associations between percent obesity and 1) natural amenities and 2) recreation facilities per capita.

Conclusions:

Future research should examine environmental and policy changes to increase recreation facilities and enhance accessible natural amenities to decrease obesity rates.

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Lisa T. Washburn, Carol E. Cornell, Martha Phillips, Holly Felix and LaVona Traywick

Background:

The effect of volunteer lay leaders on availability and sustainability of strength-training programs for older adults has not been well explored. We describe implementation of the StrongWomen strength training program by the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, and report on the relationship between delivery approach (agent-led, lay-led, or combination of agent- and lay-led) and program access and sustainability.

Methods:

All state Extension agents (n = 66) were surveyed on program implementation, continuance, and use of lay leaders. Program records were used to identify the number of trained lay leaders. Regression models were used to examine the relationship between delivery approach and group availability.

Results:

Counties using lay leaders had twice as many groups as counties using only agents. There was a significant, positive relationship between the number of lay leaders and the number of groups. Counties using lay leaders were 8.3 times more likely to have continuing groups compared with counties not using lay leaders.

Conclusions:

Program continuance was significantly and positively associated with lay leader use. Lay delivery expanded access to strength training programs and increased the likelihood that programs would continue. This approach can be used to increase access to and sustainability of strength training programs, particularly in resource-constrained areas.

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Barbara Eva Kirunda, Henry Wamani, Lars Thore Fadnes, Jan Van den Broeck and Thorkild Tylleskär

Background:

Data on physical inactivity, a known risk factor for noncommunicable diseases and its correlates in sub-Saharan Africa are almost absent. We assessed physical activity patterns and associated factors among adults.

Methods:

A populationbased study of 1208 adults was conducted in the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Uganda. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as a daily average of < 7500 steps while sedentary behavior was defined as a daily average of < 5000 steps. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior.

Results:

Of the 1208 participants, 18.8% were sedentary (10.6% of men; 26.9% of women, P < .001), 37.6% were physically inactive (28.5% of men; 46.6% of women, P < .001). Factors associated with sedentary behavior were being female, ≥ 65 years, peri-urban residence, being a domestic worker, formal employment and lower primary education. Factors associated with physical inactivity were being female, 55 to 64 years, ≥ 65 years, peri-urban residence, overweight and obesity.

Conclusions:

Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were prevalent among the adult population. Targeted physical activity promotion interventions are needed.

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Jamie Zoellner, Alicia Powers, Amanda Avis-Williams, Murugi Ndirangu, Earline Strickland and Kathy Yadrick

Background:

Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations.

Methods:

Community “coaches” led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included wearing pedometers and maintaining pedometer diaries for the study duration. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA tests were used to evaluate compliance rates for maintaining diaries and daily step counts. After the intervention, focus groups were used to explore opinions regarding pedometers. Audiotapes were transcribed and evaluated using systematic content analysis.

Results:

The 8 coaches and 75 enrolled walking participants were primarily African American (98%) women (94%). Overall, the group (N = 83) submitted 85% of all possible pedometer diaries and recorded 73% of all possible daily step counts. Walking-group members were significantly (P < .01) more compliant if their coach was also compliant. Identified benefits of wearing pedometers and maintaining diaries outnumbered the barriers. Participants were enthusiastic about wearing the pedometers and indicated that the weekly diaries provided a source of motivation.

Conclusions:

This research suggests pedometer diaries are a viable intervention tool and research method for community-based physical activity interventions targeting African Americans and highlights the need for social support to promote pedometer diary compliance.

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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

least 60 minutes of PA on 5 or more days per week. 3 Many factors contribute to children’s abilities to achieve the recommended PA for health, including where they live. Children residing in rural areas are more likely to be living in poverty, less likely to meet PA guidelines, and are at higher risk