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Barbara Eva Kirunda, Henry Wamani, Lars Thore Fadnes, Jan Van den Broeck and Thorkild Tylleskär

Background:

Data on physical inactivity, a known risk factor for noncommunicable diseases and its correlates in sub-Saharan Africa are almost absent. We assessed physical activity patterns and associated factors among adults.

Methods:

A populationbased study of 1208 adults was conducted in the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Uganda. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as a daily average of < 7500 steps while sedentary behavior was defined as a daily average of < 5000 steps. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior.

Results:

Of the 1208 participants, 18.8% were sedentary (10.6% of men; 26.9% of women, P < .001), 37.6% were physically inactive (28.5% of men; 46.6% of women, P < .001). Factors associated with sedentary behavior were being female, ≥ 65 years, peri-urban residence, being a domestic worker, formal employment and lower primary education. Factors associated with physical inactivity were being female, 55 to 64 years, ≥ 65 years, peri-urban residence, overweight and obesity.

Conclusions:

Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were prevalent among the adult population. Targeted physical activity promotion interventions are needed.

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Lisa T. Washburn, Carol E. Cornell, Martha Phillips, Holly Felix and LaVona Traywick

Background:

The effect of volunteer lay leaders on availability and sustainability of strength-training programs for older adults has not been well explored. We describe implementation of the StrongWomen strength training program by the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, and report on the relationship between delivery approach (agent-led, lay-led, or combination of agent- and lay-led) and program access and sustainability.

Methods:

All state Extension agents (n = 66) were surveyed on program implementation, continuance, and use of lay leaders. Program records were used to identify the number of trained lay leaders. Regression models were used to examine the relationship between delivery approach and group availability.

Results:

Counties using lay leaders had twice as many groups as counties using only agents. There was a significant, positive relationship between the number of lay leaders and the number of groups. Counties using lay leaders were 8.3 times more likely to have continuing groups compared with counties not using lay leaders.

Conclusions:

Program continuance was significantly and positively associated with lay leader use. Lay delivery expanded access to strength training programs and increased the likelihood that programs would continue. This approach can be used to increase access to and sustainability of strength training programs, particularly in resource-constrained areas.

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Jamie Zoellner, Alicia Powers, Amanda Avis-Williams, Murugi Ndirangu, Earline Strickland and Kathy Yadrick

Background:

Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations.

Methods:

Community “coaches” led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included wearing pedometers and maintaining pedometer diaries for the study duration. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA tests were used to evaluate compliance rates for maintaining diaries and daily step counts. After the intervention, focus groups were used to explore opinions regarding pedometers. Audiotapes were transcribed and evaluated using systematic content analysis.

Results:

The 8 coaches and 75 enrolled walking participants were primarily African American (98%) women (94%). Overall, the group (N = 83) submitted 85% of all possible pedometer diaries and recorded 73% of all possible daily step counts. Walking-group members were significantly (P < .01) more compliant if their coach was also compliant. Identified benefits of wearing pedometers and maintaining diaries outnumbered the barriers. Participants were enthusiastic about wearing the pedometers and indicated that the weekly diaries provided a source of motivation.

Conclusions:

This research suggests pedometer diaries are a viable intervention tool and research method for community-based physical activity interventions targeting African Americans and highlights the need for social support to promote pedometer diary compliance.

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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

least 60 minutes of PA on 5 or more days per week. 3 Many factors contribute to children’s abilities to achieve the recommended PA for health, including where they live. Children residing in rural areas are more likely to be living in poverty, less likely to meet PA guidelines, and are at higher risk

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Ruri Famelia, Emi Tsuda, Syahrial Bakhtiar and Jacqueline D. Goodway

98% of the population is Muslim ( BPS-Statistic of Sumatera Barat Province, 2007 ). As the Indonesian population shifts from rural to urban areas ( Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], 2016 ), diets change to more processed food ( Julia, Van Weissenbruch, Delemarre-van de Waal, & Surjono, 2004

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Kristen Day

occur in low- and middle-income countries, 1 where diseases occur at younger ages and cause earlier deaths, compared with developed countries. 2 Noncommunicable diseases and overweight and obesity especially impact urban areas and low-income individuals. 1 , 3 , 4 Population shifts from rural to

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Youngdeok Kim, Joaquin U. Gonzales and P. Hemachandra Reddy

populations. Therefore, this study sought to examine the longitudinal and concurrent associations between the changes in handgrip strength and CVD biomarkers in middle-aged to older adults living in rural areas. The results from this study will provide further insight into the natural course of CVD

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Kun Liang

the 2006 and the 2010 Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China (SSAPUR). The two waves of surveys were conducted by the China Research Center on Aging. In 2006, this center selected 20 divisions out of 31 provincial-level administrative divisions from all regions of China, including north

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Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton

residence (Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia and metropolitan/rural), 26 socioeconomic position (Socio-Economic Indexes For Areas quintiles), 27 and highest education level attained (no postsecondary qualification/trade certificate/university degree). Self-reported BMI using WHO cut-off points

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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney

geographic location (city, suburb, small town, and rural) as defined using the Rural–Urban Commuting Area Codes from the 2000 US Census. The process of linking the NCES and Rural–Urban Commuting Area Codes data on school characteristics with MSS data is described in detail elsewhere. 23 Data Analysis We