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Mark Russell, Aden King, Richard. M. Bracken, Christian. J. Cook, Thibault Giroud and Liam. P. Kilduff


To assess the effects of different modes of morning (AM) exercise on afternoon (PM) performance and salivary hormone responses in professional rugby union players.


On 4 occasions (randomized, crossover design), 15 professional rugby players provided AM (~8 AM) and PM (~2 PM) saliva samples before PM assessments of countermovement-jump height, reaction time, and repeated-sprint ability. Control (passive rest), weights (bench press: 5 × 10 repetitions, 75% 1-repetition maximum, 90-s intraset recovery), cycling (6 × 6-s maximal sprint cycling, 7.5% body mass load, 54-s intraset recovery), and running (6 × 40-m maximal sprints, 20-s intraset recovery) interventions preceded (~5 h) PM testing.


PM sprint performance improved (P < .05) after weights (>0.15 ± 0.19 s, >2.04% ± 2.46%) and running (>0.15 ± 0.17 s, >2.12% ± 2.22%) but not cycling (P > .05). PM jump height increased after cycling (0.012 ± 0.009 m, 2.31% ± 1.76%, P < .001) and running (0.020 ± 0.009 m, 3.90% ± 1.79%, P < .001) but not weights (P = .936). Reaction time remained unchanged between trials (P = .379). Relative to control (131 ± 21 pg/mL), PM testosterone was greater in weights (21 ± 23 pg/mL, 17% ± 18%, P = .002) and running (28 ± 26 pg/mL, 22% ± 20%, P = .001) but not cycling (P = .072). Salivary cortisol was unaffected by AM exercise (P = .540).


All modes of AM exercise improved at least 1 marker of PM performance, but running appeared the most beneficial to professional rugby union players. A rationale therefore exists for preceding PM competition with AM exercise.

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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

administration ( Slotten & Krekling, 1996 ). Saliva samples were collected from each participant before administering a dose and 1 hr later, and the concentration of melatonin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (using an ELISA kit supplied by IBL International, Hamburg, Germany). All of the

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

period, an incremental exercise test was then conducted to determine VO 2 max. The final three visits served as experimental sessions. In each experimental session, participants completed an 8-km TT. Blood lactate, CMVJ, and DJ were assessed before the TT and during a 30-min recovery period. Saliva

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

Participants visited the lab for 2 consecutive days before and after the HIT intervention (Figure  1 ). On day 1, participants provided a rested, fasted venous blood sample and passive drool saliva sample to assess immune, stress, and nutritional biomarkers. Samples were collected between 06:00 and 08:00. On

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

consume the treatment beverage. Procedures On arrival at the athletics track, the body mass of each participant was recorded and saliva and capillary blood samples were collected before participants ingested the test drink (baseline). Then the participants performed their usual prerace standardized warm

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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Angela Renton, Norman Ng and William von Hippel

undertake the attention task because of the limited amount of time they had available for this test at the end of a workday. An additional 4 participants were not able to attend the laboratory on at least 1 workday and therefore did not provide EEG data or saliva samples for all 3 conditions. A total of 13

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

controlled recovery period, that may be insufficient for individuals already exhibiting disruptions to all ostasis (e.g., perhaps due to regular very high-volume exercise training). After undertaking anthropometric measurements, a resting blood sample was collected and participants provided a saliva sample

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

arm. Supplements were ingested for 5 days at home, and the sixth dose was provided on the test day at the sports facility. Subjects underwent baseline and 2.5 hr postingestion measurements of plasma, saliva, and gastrointestinal tolerance questionnaires. Plasma and saliva were collected and analyzed

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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann

processes and residues of muscle damage related to performance and training responses. They are mainly assessed via blood samples, urine, and saliva, and show proneness to interindividual variability. 6 Creatine kinase (CK) is the most frequently used biochemical marker across a plethora of sport

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Gregory Knell, Deborah Salvo, Kerem Shuval, Casey Durand, Harold W. Kohl III and Kelley P. Gabriel

analysis of ‘compliant participants’ to those returning the data collection instrument with valid data. For example, saliva sampling costs approximately $20 each for the data collection instrument (not including postage). The lower cost, and the fact that the data collection instrument cannot be reused for