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Melody Oliver, Philip J. Schluter, Genevieve N. Healy, El-Shadan Tautolo, Grant Schofield and Elaine Rush

Background:

Breaks in sedentary behavior are associated with reduced body size in general populations. This study is the first to consider the relationship between objectively assessed sedentary breaks and body size in Pacific children and their mothers.

Methods:

Pacific children aged 6 years (n = 393) and their mothers (n = 386) residing in New Zealand were invited to participate in 2006. Sedentary time was assessed via accelerometry. Average frequency, duration, and intensity of breaks in sedentary time per hour were calculated. Waist circumference was assessed and demographic factors collected via questionnaire. Relationships between waist circumference and potential associated factors for participants were assessed using linear regression analyses.

Results:

Accelerometer data were obtained from 126 children (52 boys) and 108 mothers. Mean (standard deviation) waist circumference values for mothers and children were 114 cm (20.1 cm) and 59.4 cm (7.8 cm), respectively. For mothers, time spent sedentary and being an ex/nonsmoker were positively related to waist circumference. For children, watching television every day and having a mother with a high waist circumference was associated with a greater waist circumference.

Conclusion:

Strategies that focus on reducing sedentary time in Pacific mothers and on encouraging television free days in young Pacific children are recommended.

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Mette S. Nielsen, Jonas S. Quist, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F. Michaelsen, Anders Sjödin and Mads F. Hjorth

Background:

Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/nonmovement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/nonmovement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown.

Methods:

We explored the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated.

Results:

MVPA was negatively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (P < .001) and with CRP and IL-6 in girls (P < .05) independent of sleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both P < .001), and sleep duration with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (P < .001); however, these associations disappeared after mutual adjustments for movement behavior. Sleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P < .01).

Conclusion:

MVPA remained negatively associated with inflammatory markers and adiponectin, and sleep duration variability positively associated with CRP after adjustment for FMI, pubertal status, and other movement behavior. The inverse association between MVPA and adiponectin conflicts with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin.

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Maïté Verloigne, Nicola D. Ridgers, Mai Chinapaw, Teatske Altenburg, Elling Bere, Sveinung Berntsen, Greet Cardon, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Wendy Van Lippevelde and Lea Maes

There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children’s sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (> 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children’s sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed.

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Kate A. Bolam, Björn Ekblom, Göran Bergström and Mats Börjesson

Background:

Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

Methods:

A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

Results:

Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

Conclusions:

LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

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Mine Yildirim, Anna Schoeni, Amika S. Singh, Teatske M. Altenburg, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Eva Kovacs, Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Yannis Manios and Mai J.M. Chinapaw

Background:

The aim of the study was to examine the association of daily variations in rainfall and temperature with sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in European children.

Methods:

Children were included from 5 countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland) as part of the ENERGY-project. We used cross-sectional data from 722 children aged 10–12 years (47% boys). ST and PA were measured by accelerometers for 6 consecutive days, including weekend days. Weather data were collected from online national weather reports. Multilevel regression models were used for data analyses.

Results:

Maximum temperature was positively associated with light PA (β = 3.1 min/day; 95% CI = 2.4–3.8), moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = 0.6 min/day; 95% CI = 0.4–0.8), and average PA [β = 4.1 counts per minute (cpm); 95% CI = 1.6–6.5, quadratic relationship]. Rainfall was inversely and quadratically associated with light PA (β = –1.3 min/day; 95% CI = –1.9 to –0.6), moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = –0.6 min/day; 95% CI = –0.8 to –0.3), and average PA (β = –1.6 cpm; 95% CI = –2.2 to –0.9). Maximum temperature was not significantly associated with ST (β = –0.2 min/day; 95% CI = –1.0 to 0.6), while rainfall was positively associated with ST (β = 0.9 min/day; 95% CI = 0.6–1.3).

Conclusion:

The current study shows that temperature and rainfall are significantly associated with PA and ST in 10- to 12-year-old European children.

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Melisa Comte, Erin Hobin, Steve Manske, Catherine Casey, Jane Griffith, Carly Leggett, Paul Veugelers, Donna Murnaghan and Jonathan McGavock

Objectives:

The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in physical education (PE) was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels in adolescents.

Methods:

This was a cross sectional study comparing MVPA levels in senior-years students—grade 11 and 12—enrolled in high school PE during the semester data were collected compared with those not enrolled in PE in that same semester. The primary outcome measure was daily MVPA measured by accelerometry. The primary exposure was participation in PE.

Results:

Among the 508 adolescents (16.9 ± 0.8 yrs, 49% female, n = 338 exposed to PE) studied, no differences in MVPA (47.0 ± 25.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.0 mins/day, P = .25) or sedentary time (540.2 ± 94.7 vs. 550.2 ± 79.4 mins/day, P = .79) were noted between students enrolled in PE compared with students not enrolled in PE. Participation in PE was associated with a greater odds of achieving >60 minutes of MVPA daily (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04−2.75). This association was stronger among boys (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.2−4.8) than girls (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 5−2.7).

Conclusion:

Enrollment in PE in grade 11 or 12 is associated with modestly higher levels of MVPA and an increased likelihood of meeting PA guidelines among students in grades 11 and 12, particularly among boys.

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Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block and Rebecca E. Hasson

few researchers have directly measured BP. Emerging evidence suggests that interrupting prolonged periods of sedentary time is associated with decreased BP in adults. Larsen et al ( 25 ) observed decreased SBP and DBP in response to breaking up prolonged sitting with light- and moderate-intensity 2

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Xanne Janssen, Dylan P. Cliff, John J. Reilly, Trina Hinkley, Rachel A. Jones, Marijka Batterham, Ulf Ekelund, Soren Brage and Anthony D. Okely

This study examined the classification accuracy of the activPAL, including total time spent sedentary and total number of breaks in sedentary behavior (SB) in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty children aged 4–6 years (5.3 ± 1.0 years) completed a ~150-min laboratory protocol involving sedentary, light, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities. Posture was coded as sit/lie, stand, walk, or other using direct observation. Posture was classified using the activPAL software. Classification accuracy was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC). Time spent in each posture and total number of breaks in SB were compared using paired sample t-tests. The activPAL showed good classification accuracy for sitting (ROC-AUC = 0.84) and fair classification accuracy for standing and walking (0.76 and 0.73, respectively). Time spent in sit/lie and stand was overestimated by 5.9% (95% CI = 0.6−11.1%) and 14.8% (11.6−17.9%), respectively; walking was underestimated by 10.0% (−12.9−7.0%). Total number of breaks in SB were significantly overestimated (55 ± 27 over the course of the protocol; p < .01). The activPAL performed well when classifying postures in young children. However, the activPAL has difficulty classifying other postures, such as kneeling. In addition, when predicting time spent in different postures and total number of breaks in SB the activPAL appeared not to be accurate.

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Alexis C. Frazier-Wood, Ingrid B. Borecki, Mary F. Feitosa, Paul N. Hopkins, Caren E. Smith and Donna K. Arnett

Background:

Time spent in sedentary activities (such as watching television) has previously been associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Little is known about associations with lipoprotein subfractions. Using television and computer screen time in hours per day as a measure of sedentary time, we examined the association of screen time with lipoprotein subfractions.

Methods:

Data were used from men and women forming the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study population. Mixed linear models specified lipoprotein measures as the outcome, and screen time as the predictor for fourteen lipoprotein subfraction measures, and included age, smoking status, pedigree, and fat, carbohydrate daily alcohol and energy intake as covariates. Analyses were run separately for men (n = 623) and women (n = 671). A step-down Bonferroni correction was applied to results. The analysis was repeated for significant results (p < .05), additionally controlling for body mass index (BMI) and moderate and vigorous physical activity.

Results:

Linear models indicated that screen time was associated with five lipoprotein parameters in women: the concentration of large VLDL particles (p = .01), LDL particle number (p = .01), concentration of small LDL particles (p = .04), the concentration of large HDL particles (p = .04), and HDL diameter (p = .02). All associations remained after controlling for moderate or vigorous physical activity and BMI.

Conclusions:

We show that sedentary time is associated with lipoprotein measures, markers of cardiometabolic disease, independently of physical activity and BMI, in women but not men.

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Kosuke Tamura, Jeffrey S. Wilson, Robin C. Puett, David B. Klenosky, William A. Harper and Philip J. Troped

adjusted models. Trail use was only significantly associated with VPA in the age-adjusted model (β = 2.5 mean min/d). Trail use was inversely associated with SB in both age and fully adjusted models. Table 3 Associations Between Trail Use and Objective Measures of PA and Sedentary Time (N = 431 Person