There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.
Earl Smith and Angela Hattery
The current malaise over sport management’s place and future as an academic discipline provides a useful basis for envisioning the needs and directions for the field’s growth and development. The field’s development requires two complementary streams of research: one that tests the relevance and application of theories derived from other disciplines, and one that is grounded in sport phenomena. The legitimations that sport advocates advance for sport’s place on public agendas are useful starting points for research that is sport focused. The fi ve most common current legitimations for sport are health, salubrious socialization, economic development, community development, and national pride. The value of sport in each case depends on the ways that sport is managed. Factors that facilitate and that inhibit optimization of sport’s contribution to each must be identified and probed. Identifying and probing those factors will be aided by research that confronts popular beliefs about sport, and by research that explores sport’s links to other economic sectors. The resulting research agenda will foster development of a distinctive sport management discipline.
Janet B. Parks and Luis Fernando Parra
This study investigated job satisfaction of alumnae/i of an undergraduate sport management program (N = 254). It questioned whether there would be a significant difference between job satisfaction scores of alumnae/i employed in positions related to sport and the scores of alumnae/i employed in positions unrelated to sport. Job satisfaction was measured by the Job Descriptive Index and the Job in General scales (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). Eighty-four (71.2%) of the 118 respondents held positions related to sport and 34 (28.8%) were in positions unrelated to sport. A MANOVA with follow-up ANOVAs was used to examine differences in satisfaction scores across the “jobs related to sport/jobs unrelated to sport” distinction. Except for “satisfaction with present pay,” no significant differences were found. These results suggested that sport management alumnae/i who obtain jobs unrelated to sport may have approximately equal prospects of attaining job satisfaction as graduates who obtain jobs related to sport.
Melissa N. Chester and Michael Mondello
The purpose of this study was to ascertain what role mentoring played in female sport management faculty’s decision to pursue doctoral degrees and to investigate and identify factors related to successful transition through the doctoral program. A qualitative, descriptive-interpretive approach utilizing a cross case analysis of current female faculty in sport management was used to discover participants’ subjective views regarding a specific experience or experiences in an effort to provide unique, relevant data (Anda, 2001). This methodology allowed for a greater understanding of the participants and their experiences. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eight participants dichotomized by race: four White and four Black Assistant Professors teaching in undergraduate and graduate programs at various types of Carnegie classified institutions. Collectively, seven major themes and four major personality traits and characteristics developed from verbatim transcriptions of the interviews. The seven themes included athletic involvement, career in athletics, career aspirations, pedagogy decision, influence of mentor, mentor roles, and context of mentoring. The four personality traits and characteristics related to success were athletic involvement/career in athletics, single with no dependents, competitive/confident, and vigilance/determination.
Lauren E. Brown
By Robert N. Lussier and David C. Kimball. Published 2019 by Human Kinetics , Champaign, IL. 528 pp. ISBN: 9781492570158 The third edition of Applied Sport Management Skills by Robert N. Lussier (professor of management, Springfield College) and David C. Kimball (professor of management and
Edited by Nico Schulenkorf and Stephen Frawley. Published 2017 by Routledge , Abingdon, UK. A quick glance at sport-management curricula across academic institutions illustrates the popularity of courses with a global and international focus. While the terminology may differ slightly, nearly all
This review paper presents recent critiques regarding research in sport management and suggests that focus groups are a qualitative methodology particularly suited to research and practice in sport management. Features of qualitative methodology and merits of focus groups are presented. The challenge to scholars working in sport management is (a) to consider using focus-group methodology in situations where such usage will advance the understanding of and response to research questions, and (b) to consider using focus groups as a self-contained methodology or in triangulation with other methodologies.
Janet B. Parks
This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.
W. James Weese and Shawn Beard
The best universities pride themselves on developing the next generation of leaders as do the top sport management programs. Many sport management programs offer a leadership course, some at the graduate level. However, two questions emerge when discussing the teaching of leadership, namely, what do students need to know about area, and how can the topic be most effectively taught? A recent 12-month educational leave provided a cherished opportunity for the lead author to delve into the latest advancements in leadership and leadership development. The coauthor on this paper took a leadership course in his graduate sport management program and offered the perspective of an end-user. The authors provide an overview of the leadership development literature, profile three unique leadership courses offered in other disciplines, and provide sport management professors with information they should consider in developing and delivering their courses in leadership, especially at the graduate level.
An introductory course in sport management should provide the student in the program with a basic understanding of the sport industry. However, the opinions of sport management educators vary as to what should be included in the introductory course. This diversity of opinions regarding course content is reflected in the texts that have been written for use in the introductory course. Each book has its own unique objective and range of topics (Chella-durai, 1985; Lewis & Appenzeller, 1987; Parkhouse, 1992; Parks & Zanger, 1991).