This study investigated job satisfaction of alumnae/i of an undergraduate sport management program (N = 254). It questioned whether there would be a significant difference between job satisfaction scores of alumnae/i employed in positions related to sport and the scores of alumnae/i employed in positions unrelated to sport. Job satisfaction was measured by the Job Descriptive Index and the Job in General scales (Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). Eighty-four (71.2%) of the 118 respondents held positions related to sport and 34 (28.8%) were in positions unrelated to sport. A MANOVA with follow-up ANOVAs was used to examine differences in satisfaction scores across the “jobs related to sport/jobs unrelated to sport” distinction. Except for “satisfaction with present pay,” no significant differences were found. These results suggested that sport management alumnae/i who obtain jobs unrelated to sport may have approximately equal prospects of attaining job satisfaction as graduates who obtain jobs related to sport.
Janet B. Parks and Luis Fernando Parra
Earl Smith and Angela Hattery
There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.
Lauren E. Brown
By Robert N. Lussier and David C. Kimball. Published 2019 by Human Kinetics , Champaign, IL. 528 pp. ISBN: 9781492570158 The third edition of Applied Sport Management Skills by Robert N. Lussier (professor of management, Springfield College) and David C. Kimball (professor of management and
Edited by Nico Schulenkorf and Stephen Frawley. Published 2017 by Routledge , Abingdon, UK. A quick glance at sport-management curricula across academic institutions illustrates the popularity of courses with a global and international focus. While the terminology may differ slightly, nearly all
This review paper presents recent critiques regarding research in sport management and suggests that focus groups are a qualitative methodology particularly suited to research and practice in sport management. Features of qualitative methodology and merits of focus groups are presented. The challenge to scholars working in sport management is (a) to consider using focus-group methodology in situations where such usage will advance the understanding of and response to research questions, and (b) to consider using focus groups as a self-contained methodology or in triangulation with other methodologies.
W. James Weese and Shawn Beard
The best universities pride themselves on developing the next generation of leaders as do the top sport management programs. Many sport management programs offer a leadership course, some at the graduate level. However, two questions emerge when discussing the teaching of leadership, namely, what do students need to know about area, and how can the topic be most effectively taught? A recent 12-month educational leave provided a cherished opportunity for the lead author to delve into the latest advancements in leadership and leadership development. The coauthor on this paper took a leadership course in his graduate sport management program and offered the perspective of an end-user. The authors provide an overview of the leadership development literature, profile three unique leadership courses offered in other disciplines, and provide sport management professors with information they should consider in developing and delivering their courses in leadership, especially at the graduate level.
Janet B. Parks
This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.
An introductory course in sport management should provide the student in the program with a basic understanding of the sport industry. However, the opinions of sport management educators vary as to what should be included in the introductory course. This diversity of opinions regarding course content is reflected in the texts that have been written for use in the introductory course. Each book has its own unique objective and range of topics (Chella-durai, 1985; Lewis & Appenzeller, 1987; Parkhouse, 1992; Parks & Zanger, 1991).
Understanding competition is central to the task of strategy formulation and implementation and it is the link between competition and strategy that was explored in the 2011 Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Lecture. It was argued that strategy, given its centrality to organizational phenomena, and strategy research in particular, provides rich and diverse competitive contexts with the potential to reveal some of the unique properties of sport management. To ascertain the prevalence of sport-related strategy research, three sport management journals were subject to content analysis to identify published manuscripts related to strategy. Before presenting the results, the Lecture considered competition on and off the field, the origins of competitive behavior in sport management and a brief review of the major research themes in the generic strategic management literature. Results revealed that 20 (2.5%) of the 805 manuscripts published in the three journals were strategy focused. Research themes and contexts were presented as well as a bibliometric analysis of the reference lists of the 20 identified strategy manuscripts. This analysis highlighted the journals that are influencing published sport management strategy-related research. It was concluded that strategy research specific to sport management has been sparse to date, yet the role of strategy formulation is central to the role of management and should also be central to sport management scholarship.
James Skinner and Allan Edwards
Although qualitative research approaches such as ethnography have been applied to the field of sport (e.g., Bricknell, 2001; Hughson and Hallinan, 2001) Sparkes (2003) has suggested that it was not until the late 1990s that sport researchers began to embrace ethnographic frameworks underpinned by critical and postmodern theories. As such, the value of these research designs has not been fully realized. The benefit for sport management researchers in applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches is that it sharpens their critical consciousness. This article therefore develops an argument for applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches to sport management research. In doing this we (a) provide a brief historical sketch of social science research paradigms; (b) outline the benefits of applying critical and postmodern thought to sport management ethnographic research; (c) present examples of current sport and sport management ethnographic research that applies critical and postmodern frameworks; and (d) provide insight into the concerns that sport management scholars should consider when applying ethnographic research designs that embrace the tenets of postmodernism. Through this discussion we conclude that, although ethnographic approaches inspired by critical and postmodern thought are not the panacea to solve all research problems, if applied correctly they can only further enhance out knowledge of the research issue under investigation.