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Eva Martin-Diener, Simon Foster, Meichun Mohler-Kuo and Brian W. Martin

Background:

This study investigates the relationships between physical activity (PA), sports participation and sensation seeking or aggression and injury risk in young men.

Methods:

A representative cohort study was conducted with 4686 conscripts for the Swiss army. Risk factors assessed at baseline were PA, the frequency of sports participation, sensation seeking, and aggression. The number of injuries during the past 12 months was reported 16 months after baseline. Exposure to moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA) was estimated based on baseline PA.

Results:

Among conscripts, 48.5% reported at least 1 injury for the past 12 months. After accounting for exposure to MVPA, the most inactive individuals (reference group) had the highest injury risk and those with high levels of PA and weekly sports participation the lowest (Poisson regression analysis: incidence rate ratio = 0.14 [0.12–0.16]). Independent of activity level, sensation seeking increased cumulative injury incidence significantly (Logistic regression analysis [injured vs. not injured]: odds ratio = 1.29 [1.02–1.63]) and incidence rates marginally. Aggression was marginally associated only with cumulative injury incidence and only in those participating in daily sports.

Conclusions:

When accounting for exposure to PA, being inactive is a strong injury risk factor in young men, whereas the roles of the personality variables are less clear.

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Stephen M. Paridon

Over the past two decades, improvements in diagnostic and surgical techniques have dramatically altered the outlook for children with congenital heart defects. Even with complex lesions, most of these children are now surviving to an age were issues of exercise and sports participation must be considered. In this review, the various factors that affect cardiovascular performance during exercise are examined in terms of how they relate to different types of congenital heart defects. The effect of anatomy, myocardial stress, and associated noncardiac abnormalities are discussed. Exercise performance in the major classes of cardiac defects and factors limiting performance in these classes are reviewed.

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Timothy J. Curry and Robert M. Jiobu

The importance of competition and other motive statements in explaining gambling behavior is an important but controversial issue. This study operationalizes several types of motive statements related to sports participation, and then, in a novel methodological strategy, applies these as independent variables in a causal model of sport betting among college athletes. Based on questionnaires from 492 athletes at three colleges, findings showed that competitive and extrinsic motives for sport predict sports wagering. This is the case even in a multivariate equation that includes several control variables drawn from previous studies of gambling in the general population.

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Jeffery L. Huston

Youth sports teach lessons of teamwork, perseverance, and competition. The unique aspects of youth sports provide constraints that occur with the interaction between participants, coaches, parents, and medical professionals. Ethical dimensions arise out of the nature of the interaction between adults and youth that can build upon the inherent benefits of youth sports participation or reinforce the worst aspects of participation. Parents and coaches play a particular role in dealing with the development of youth athletes, while medical professionals must understand that the relationship between the patient and clinician and the expectation of the social contract is changed through the dynamics of the triadic nature of healthcare in youth sports.

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Patricia Marten DiBartolo and Carey Shaffer

This study examines eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and general psychological well-being in female nonathletes and Division III college athletes. A total of 115 nonathletes and 94 athletes completed measures of eating attitudes, body satisfaction, trait affect, reasons for exercise, and perceived self-competence. On the majority of measures, the scores of athletes revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning than the scores of nonathletes. These results indicate that female athletic involvement can be associated with healthy eating and psychological functioning. Future research should give consideration to which environments may foster healthy sports participation.

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Daniel R. Taber, Charlotte Pratt, Eileen Y. Charneco, Marsha Dowda, Jennie A. Phillips and Scott B. Going

Background:

There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls.

Methods:

Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass.

Results:

The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure.

Conclusions:

Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls.

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An De Meester, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij and Leen Haerens

Purpose:

The goals were to investigate whether extracurricular school-based sports reach students not engaging in community sports and whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or autonomously motivated toward sports than nonparticipants.

Method:

1526 students (48.0% boys; 85.9% Belgian natives; age = 15.34 ± 1.83y) completed validated questionnaires to assess sports participation, physical activity (PA) and sports-motivation. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted.

Results:

Only 28.7% of all students (n = 438), and 19.7% of students not engaging in community sports (n = 123), participated in extracurricular school-based sports. Participants were significantly more physically active [β=44.19, S.E.=17.34, χ2(1)=6.50, p = .01] and autonomously motivated [β=.18, S.E.=.04, χ2(1)=25.62, p < .001] than nonparticipants, even after controlling for community sports participation. Boys were more physically active and autonomously motivated than girls (p < .001).

Conclusion:

As participation is linked to higher PA-levels and autonomous motivation, increasing overall participation rates may contribute to children developing a more physically active lifestyle and achieving the PA guidelines.

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R. Chappell

Although there have been some scholarly investigations of sport in developing countries there has been very little research conducted on the problems of sports’ participation for girls and women. This paper consists of: 1) previous literature concerning the problems associated with defining and categorizing developing countries, and with the analyses of sports participation for girls and women. 2) a discussion of the problems encountered by women when attempting to participate in sport. 3) this section consists of a discussion of the information concerning assistance that is being given to developing countries in the field of sport, sports science and physical education. It is suggested that if advances are to be made in relation to womenís participation in sport, especially at international level, a major organization such as the International Olympic Committee needs to coordinate the efforts. It is additionally suggested that within each country there is a need for a specific organization whose task it would be to act as a voice to promote sport for girls and women.

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William J. Kraemer, Andrew C. Fry, Peter N. Frykman, Brian Conroy and Jay Hoffman

The use of resistance training for children has increased in popularity and interest. It appears that children are capable of voluntary strength gains. Exercise prescription in younger populations is critical and requires certain program variables to be altered from adult perspectives. Individualization is vital, as the rate of physiological maturation has an impact on the adaptations that occur. The major difference in programs for children is the use of lighter loads (i.e., > 6 RM loads). It appears that longer duration programs (i.e., 10-20 wks) are better for observing training adaptations. This may be due to the fact that it takes more exercise to stimulate adaptational mechanisms related to strength performance beyond that of normal growth rates. The risk of injury appears low during participation in a resistance training program, and this risk is minimized with proper supervision and instruction. Furthermore, with the incidence of injury in youth sports, participation in a resistance training program may provide a protective advantage in one’s preparation for sports participation.

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Collin Webster

Personal biography influences preservice classroom teachers’ (PCT) perceptions and attitudes related to school-based physical activity promotion (SPAP). Using an uncontrolled prepost design, this study investigated associations between biographical variables and changes in PCTs’ SPAP attitudes and perceived competence while enrolled in a 16-week SPAP course. PCTs (N = 201) completed baseline measures assessing biographical variables of year in school, sports participation, coaching/teaching experience, BMI, satisfaction with K-12 physical education (PE) and perceived physical activity (PA) competence, and prepost measures assessing SPAP attitudes and perceived competence. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance procedures showed statistically significant, positive changes in PCTs’ scores on all SPAP measures. Mixed-model analysis of variance/covariance techniques indicated sport participation, teaching/coaching experience, PE satisfaction and perceived PA competence were associated with changes in SPAP scores. Results suggest PCTs’ SPAP learning experiences should incorporate strategies for enhancing self-schemas and perceptions related to PE and PA.