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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

supplement in a competition setting. Carnitine Carnitine is a compound predominantly found (95%) within the skeletal muscle, playing several important roles in substrate utilization. Carnitine assists in the translocation of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta-oxidation, as well as

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

benefits. This has prompted an increase in contemporary fasting publications and renewed academic focus, which has provided some insight into the possible effects of fasting on athletic performance. In particular, investigation of the use of fasting to enhance substrate utilization and mitochondrial

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

exercise are increased in the heat due to a shift in substrate utilization toward carbohydrate oxidation ( Febbraio, 2001 ). Daily food patterns should focus on replacing glycogen stores after exercise. Competition strategies should include activities to enhance carbohydrate availability, such as building

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Marco Van Brussel, Bart C. Bongers, Erik H.J. Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard and Tim Takken

. During progressive exercise, VCO 2 increases relative to VO 2 , which translates into an increase in RER, this reflects a shift in substrate utilization from primarily free fatty acids to mainly glucose, as well as buffering H + ions from anaerobic glycolysis ( 47 ). An attained RER of ≥1.00 at VO 2

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

, hormone replacement therapy, or hormonal contraceptive use) have been associated with changes in, namely, whole-body substrate utilization (as discussed below) without an apparent direct impact on the fed-state muscle adaptive response to exercise ( West et al., 2012 ). Specifically, during pregnancy

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

), 33 – 57 . Timmons , B. , Bar-Or , O. , & Riddell , M. ( 2007 ). Influence of age and pubertal status on substrate utilization during exercise with and without carbohydrate intake in healthy boys . Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 32, 416 – 425 . doi:10.1139/H07-004 10.1139/H

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

leads to upregulation of AMPK and signaling pathways that increase expression of molecules involved with muscle glucose and fat transport (e.g., GLUT 4 and CD36, FABPm, respectively) and substrate utilization (e.g., PDK4, HK, CS, β-HAD; De Bock et al., 2008 ). • If fasted training results in greater

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8% during the NZBC trial (PL: 2.19 (1.06 to 3.31), NZBC: 1.92 (0.88 to 2.96) g·min -1 , p < 0.05, d = 0.46). These results are reflected in substrate utilization data, with carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 47 kcal (95% CI: 27 – 69 kcal, p < 0.05, d = 0.31), and fat oxidation increased by 63 kcal