This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.
Takeshi Hirano, Kazutoshi Kudo, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki and Hiroshi Kinoshita
Inez Rovegno and Dianna Bandhauer
This case study tells the story of an in-service elementary physical education teacher, who made a large-scale change from an activities approach to a movement approach based, initially, on “Every Child a Winner” (Rockett & Owens, 1977). Five psychological dispositions facilitated the development of the teacher’s knowledge: (a) the disposition to understand the approach accurately and deeply and to do the job right, (b) the disposition to accept that the approach was difficult to learn and to persist in seeking clarification, (c) the disposition to justify and develop a practice in keeping with a sound educational philosophy and theoretical foundations, (d) the disposition toward change and to learn and implement new ideas, and (e) the disposition to suspend judgment of new ideas. Dispositions can be important aspects of teacher thinking and can help to explain successful knowledge development and teacher change.
Jason Flindall, Scott Sinnett and Alan Kingstone
The length of the last visual fixation before the critical final phase of a movement—the quiet eye (QE) fixation—is positively correlated with expertise and success. The present study tested the potential for intraskill transfer of QE durations in order to determine whether it is intrinsically linked to expertise development or is a separable skill that may be employed to improve performance under novel circumstances. The authors tracked highly skilled dart throwers’ gazes while they executed familiar (highly practiced) and familiar yet novel (distance/effector-modified) sport-specific actions. QE duration was significantly reduced when performing in unfamiliar conditions, suggesting that QE does not transfer to atypical conditions and may therefore be a result of—rather than a contributor to—expertise development. These results imply that intraskill transfer of QE is limited and, consistent with the inhibition hypothesis of QE development, argue against the value of teaching QE as an independent means of improving performance.
Jeremy Eusea, Alan Nasypany, Jeffrey Seegmiller and Russell Baker
Kelly Potteiger, Angela Wolfe and Tom Cappaert
Kate R. Pfile, Phillip A. Gribble, Gretchen E. Buskirk, Sara M. Meserth and Brian G. Pietrosimone
Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower-extremity injury-prevention training. Neuromuscularcontrol (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower-extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects after an injury-prevention program is limited.
To determine whether dynamic balance, landing mechanics, and hamstring and quadriceps strength could be improved after a 6-wk NMC intervention and maintained for a season.
Prospective case series.
11 Division I women’s basketball players (age 19.40 ± 1.35 y, height 178.05 ± 7.52 cm, mass 72.86 ± 10.70 kg).
Subjects underwent testing 3 times, completing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), and isometric strength testing for the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Pretest and posttest 1 occurred immediately before and after the intervention, respectively, and posttest 2 at the end of the competitive season, 9 mo after posttest 1. Subjects participated in eighteen 30-min plyometric and NMC-training sessions over a 6-wk period.
Main Outcome Measures:
The normalized SEBT composite score, normalized peak isometric hamstrings:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and the LESS total score.
The mean composite reach significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.96, P = .005) where both posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest (70.41% ± 4.08%) (posttest 1 73.48% ± 4.19%, t 10 = –3.11, P = .011) and posttest 2 (74.2% ± 4.77%, t 10 = –3.78, P = .004). LESS scores significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.29, P = .009). The pretest LESS score (7.30 ± 3.40) was higher than posttest 1 (4.9 ± 1.20, t 10 = 2.71, P = .024) and posttest 2 (5.44 ± 1.83, t 10 = 2.58, P = .030). There were no statistically significant differences (P > .05) over time for the H:Q ratio when averaging both legs (F 2,10 = 0.83, P = .45).
A 6-wk NMC program improved landing mechanics and dynamic balance over a 9-mo period in women’s basketball players. NMC adaptations can be retained without an in-season maintenance program.
Ryan S. McCann, Kyle B. Kosik, Masafumi Terada and Phillip A. Gribble
Key Points ▸ No previous study has developed a prediction model for recurrent ankle sprains in high school and collegiate athletes. ▸ Increased patient height and mass were associated with increased odds of sustaining a recurrent ankle sprain in the same competitive season. ▸ Commonly-used disease
Siobhán O’Connor, Róisín Leahy, Enda Whyte, Paul O’Donovan and Lauren Fortington
+ years. Section one comprised six questions detailing demographics, playing history, and additional sports participation. Section two related to injuries sustained during the previous season, and focused on the number, location, type, mechanism and severity of injuries. An injury was defined as “any
Ryan Thomson, Danielle Carabello, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ
their playing career. 3 In a sample of retired NFL players, the average number of concussions experienced during their lifetime was four. 4 Since the NFL has been found to under-report the number of concussions, 5 the number sustained may be greater. The symptoms of concussion are diverse and include