This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.
Takeshi Hirano, Kazutoshi Kudo, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki and Hiroshi Kinoshita
Jeremy Eusea, Alan Nasypany, Jeffrey Seegmiller and Russell Baker
Kate R. Pfile, Phillip A. Gribble, Gretchen E. Buskirk, Sara M. Meserth and Brian G. Pietrosimone
Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower-extremity injury-prevention training. Neuromuscularcontrol (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower-extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects after an injury-prevention program is limited.
To determine whether dynamic balance, landing mechanics, and hamstring and quadriceps strength could be improved after a 6-wk NMC intervention and maintained for a season.
Prospective case series.
11 Division I women’s basketball players (age 19.40 ± 1.35 y, height 178.05 ± 7.52 cm, mass 72.86 ± 10.70 kg).
Subjects underwent testing 3 times, completing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), and isometric strength testing for the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Pretest and posttest 1 occurred immediately before and after the intervention, respectively, and posttest 2 at the end of the competitive season, 9 mo after posttest 1. Subjects participated in eighteen 30-min plyometric and NMC-training sessions over a 6-wk period.
Main Outcome Measures:
The normalized SEBT composite score, normalized peak isometric hamstrings:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and the LESS total score.
The mean composite reach significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.96, P = .005) where both posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest (70.41% ± 4.08%) (posttest 1 73.48% ± 4.19%, t 10 = –3.11, P = .011) and posttest 2 (74.2% ± 4.77%, t 10 = –3.78, P = .004). LESS scores significantly improved over time (F 2,10 = 6.29, P = .009). The pretest LESS score (7.30 ± 3.40) was higher than posttest 1 (4.9 ± 1.20, t 10 = 2.71, P = .024) and posttest 2 (5.44 ± 1.83, t 10 = 2.58, P = .030). There were no statistically significant differences (P > .05) over time for the H:Q ratio when averaging both legs (F 2,10 = 0.83, P = .45).
A 6-wk NMC program improved landing mechanics and dynamic balance over a 9-mo period in women’s basketball players. NMC adaptations can be retained without an in-season maintenance program.
Kelly Potteiger, Angela Wolfe and Tom Cappaert
Ryan S. McCann, Kyle B. Kosik, Masafumi Terada and Phillip A. Gribble
Key Points ▸ No previous study has developed a prediction model for recurrent ankle sprains in high school and collegiate athletes. ▸ Increased patient height and mass were associated with increased odds of sustaining a recurrent ankle sprain in the same competitive season. ▸ Commonly-used disease
Siobhán O’Connor, Róisín Leahy, Enda Whyte, Paul O’Donovan and Lauren Fortington
+ years. Section one comprised six questions detailing demographics, playing history, and additional sports participation. Section two related to injuries sustained during the previous season, and focused on the number, location, type, mechanism and severity of injuries. An injury was defined as “any
Ryan Thomson, Danielle Carabello, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ
their playing career. 3 In a sample of retired NFL players, the average number of concussions experienced during their lifetime was four. 4 Since the NFL has been found to under-report the number of concussions, 5 the number sustained may be greater. The symptoms of concussion are diverse and include
Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki
sustaining an injury, and (3) calculate the injury incidence rate in nonprofessional salsa dance using an anonymous web-based 1-year retrospective injury history survey. It was hypothesized that being female 16 and having a higher age, 16 higher volume of salsa dance engagement per week, 16 higher volume
Rob Millington, Simon C. Darnell and Brad Millington
), industry (e.g. the golf industry), and the state (e.g. Brazil) (see Figure 1 ). By drawing upon the notion of ecological modernization, all three of these somewhat disparate stakeholders have articulated visions of sustainable development that are largely complementary—creating a sort of integrated circus