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Robert McCunn, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Sean Williams, Travis J. Halseth, John A. Sampson and Andrew Murray

The potential for physical injury is an accepted risk that differs in size across all sports. The cost of sustaining an injury is multifaceted and the burden is shared among numerous parties, not least the athlete themselves. Consequences incorporate financial, 1 long-term health, 2 emotional

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Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert and Frederic Grappe

, cyclists must sustain a mean PO ranging from 350 to 450 W for up to 60 minutes. 2 , 5 , 6 It is now well known that maintaining a high PO over a prolonged period of time involves a good regulation of exercise intensity throughout the event, generally called pacing strategy. 7 , 8 Results of the literature

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Christopher C. Webster, Jeroen Swart, Timothy D. Noakes and James A. Smith

this demonstrates that carbohydrate was being effectively absorbed from the gut, it suggests that the additional glucose was being oxidized because of its availability rather than because it was required for sustained energy production. 11 , 12 Figure 2 —Substrate oxidation rates. Rates of fat and

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environmental factors such as raw material availability and economic variables is a necessity for business people, entrepreneurs, or managers. Adaptation is believed to be compulsory for business sustainability and likely reduces the risk of suffering an organizational crisis. In elite sports, practitioners

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Simon J. MacLeod, Chris Hagan, Mikel Egaña, Jonny Davis and David Drake

sessions and weekly matches. Microtechnology units now obtain detailed information on collision-specific actions easily evaluating the load sustained in collisions. Although studies have succeeded in quantifying the collision demands of collision sports using microtechnology, 12 – 14 none have correlated

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston and Ole J. Kemi

subdiscipline. 1 The safe and controlled environment of fixed protection (bolts or topropes) of sport climbing allows a full focus on athletic and gymnastic challenges, 2 , 3 and as such, it is characterized by sustained, repetitive, and complex bouts of intense upward motion that tax physical capacity in the

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Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert, Gilles Ravier, Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez and Frederic Grappe

distracted from their perceived exertion and can therefore sustain higher exercise intensities. This new knowledge about attentional focus is also in line with recent psychophysiological models of endurance performance, 10 – 12 which show that the athlete’s effort is directly influenced by psychological

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

individual endogenous (i.e., muscle and liver glycogen) and exogenous CHO (i.e., CHO consumed before and/or during exercise) that is available to sustain the required training or racing intensity and duration ( Impey et al., 2018 ). According to this definition, it is possible to have insufficient CHO

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

sustained for 1 minute defined as maximal aerobic power (MAP). Statistical Analyses Data are presented as mean (SD). An independent 1-way analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were significant differences between groups for any of the variables. Normality and equality of variance were

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

quadriceps for 3 hours in terms of the magnitude of reduction in vastus lateralis intramuscular temperature. Ultimately, PCM treatment provided a sustained decrease in intramuscular temperature that was maintained for the 3 hours of application (Figure  2 ) and a more gradual recovery (Figure  3 ). However