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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

nude body mass was recorded once the participant had left the environmental chamber to estimate sweat loss and sweat rate. Heat Acclimation Heat acclimation participants sat in the chamber for 10 minutes to establish baseline values before cycling (Monark 874E; Monark) for 30 minutes in the heat (35°C

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

). It has, however, been established that athletes’ sweat rates increase when they exercise in the heat, possibility increasing overall sodium loss and sweat sodium concentrations ( Holmes et al., 2011 ), which has been observed in football players ( Duffield et al., 2012 ; Maughan et al., 2004 ). Thus

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Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding

, after 10-min T re stabilization, and before and after the time trial). Participants then exited the chamber and toweled dry before reweighing nude body mass, with subsequent data used to establish the effect of NO 3 − supplementation on sweat rate. Heart rate was measured using a heart-rate monitor

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Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro

 al., 2004 ). To put these study results in context, a 9 mmol/L difference in sweat [Na + ] (e.g., 40 vs. 49 mmol/L), which is the upper limit expected for 95% of PRESTORAGE versus POSTSTORAGE comparisons, for an athlete with a sweating rate of 1.2 L/hr, would equate to 48.0 versus 58.8 mmol/hr or 1

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

must determine their sweat rate through acute changes in body mass. Bardis et al. ( 2017 ) compared a prescribed drinking strategy with ad libitum drinking during a cycling protocol that consisted of riding 30 km, with the last 5 km being an all-out performance assessment. Those authors reported that

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

and 34.4 ± 0.5 °C, respectively. Mean sweat loss during the race was 2.24 ± 0.89 L equivalent to a sweat rate of 1.34 ± 0.58 L·h −1 ( Neville et al., 2010 ). The sport also requires high levels of concentration as athletes are required to make rapid tactical decisions. Additionally, athletes remain

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

, despite similar sweat rates, males tend to replace less fluid during exercise ( Eijsvogels et al., 2013 ). Indeed, male soccer players consume ∼50% of the fluids lost to sweat during a typical 90-min training session, resulting in about 1.4–1.6% body mass reduction ( Maughan et al., 2004 ; Shirreffs et

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

66 showed in a DII program, where fluid was only available during water breaks, that the sweat rate was the same as professional players on average (1.8 L/h) but there was a higher sweat rate in linemen than backs (2.3 v 1.6 L/h). This deficit in linemen can be exacerbated by starting the sessions

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

-race fluid plans may be beneficial. All strategies should be well practiced in training and fine tuned for the specific event. In the case of Athletes who undertake distance and ultradistance events at slower paces with lower sweat rates, specific advice against overconsuming fluids may be necessary to avoid

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

of 10 min, interspersed by short rest periods during which the participants towelled dry, and nude body mass was recorded to determine body mass loss and allow for calculation of sweat rate. Once 2% of body mass loss was achieved, the exercise was stopped. The sweat patch was removed using clean