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Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro

 al., 2004 ). To put these study results in context, a 9 mmol/L difference in sweat [Na + ] (e.g., 40 vs. 49 mmol/L), which is the upper limit expected for 95% of PRESTORAGE versus POSTSTORAGE comparisons, for an athlete with a sweating rate of 1.2 L/hr, would equate to 48.0 versus 58.8 mmol/hr or 1

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

must determine their sweat rate through acute changes in body mass. Bardis et al. ( 2017 ) compared a prescribed drinking strategy with ad libitum drinking during a cycling protocol that consisted of riding 30 km, with the last 5 km being an all-out performance assessment. Those authors reported that

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

and 34.4 ± 0.5 °C, respectively. Mean sweat loss during the race was 2.24 ± 0.89 L equivalent to a sweat rate of 1.34 ± 0.58 L·h −1 ( Neville et al., 2010 ). The sport also requires high levels of concentration as athletes are required to make rapid tactical decisions. Additionally, athletes remain

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

, despite similar sweat rates, males tend to replace less fluid during exercise ( Eijsvogels et al., 2013 ). Indeed, male soccer players consume ∼50% of the fluids lost to sweat during a typical 90-min training session, resulting in about 1.4–1.6% body mass reduction ( Maughan et al., 2004 ; Shirreffs et

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

-race fluid plans may be beneficial. All strategies should be well practiced in training and fine tuned for the specific event. In the case of Athletes who undertake distance and ultradistance events at slower paces with lower sweat rates, specific advice against overconsuming fluids may be necessary to avoid

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

66 showed in a DII program, where fluid was only available during water breaks, that the sweat rate was the same as professional players on average (1.8 L/h) but there was a higher sweat rate in linemen than backs (2.3 v 1.6 L/h). This deficit in linemen can be exacerbated by starting the sessions

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

of 10 min, interspersed by short rest periods during which the participants towelled dry, and nude body mass was recorded to determine body mass loss and allow for calculation of sweat rate. Once 2% of body mass loss was achieved, the exercise was stopped. The sweat patch was removed using clean

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Christopher Byrne and Jason K.W. Lee

production  W 943 (114) 739–1132  W·m −2 531 (52) 448–622  W·kg −1 14.4 (1.4) 12.2–16.9 Fluid intake, L 0.29 (0.21) 0–0.74 Sweat loss, L 2.58 (0.59) 1.54–4.40 Sweat rate, L·h −1 1.45 (0.33) 0.85–2.28 Body-mass loss, kg 2.58 (0.61) 1.73–4.46 Dehydration, % 3.93 (0.80) 2.53–6.20 Abbreviations: HR, heart rate

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

may lose 35% of their adaptations after 2 weeks without heat exposure. Training regularly has been suggested to aid in maintaining adaptation, however, as athletes can achieve high core temperatures and sweat rates when training vigorously, even in cooler climates. Therefore, it is recommended to

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Alan J. McCubbin, Gregory R. Cox and Ricardo J.S. Costa

Baker , L.B. ( 2017 ). Sweating rate and sweat sodium concentration in athletes: A review of methodology and intra/interindividual variability . Sports Medicine, 47 ( Suppl. 1 ), 111 – 128 . doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0691-5 10.1007/s40279-017-0691-5 Coles , M.G. , & Luetkemeier , M.J. ( 2005