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John R. Todorovich

Social constructivists posit that learning involves social interactions among individuals in a given place and time. Since teachers play a significant role in how social interactions are developed and determined in the school classroom, it is important to learn how teachers make decisions about their teaching behaviors and interactions with their students. Because extreme ego orientations have been shown to have a mediating effect on performance behavior in achievement settings, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of an extreme ego orientation on preservice teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education. Data collection consisted of two formal interviews, several informal interviews, and observations of the participants’ teaching. Five themes reflecting the teaching perspectives held by the participants emerged from the data: (a) teachers must maintain control and manage their classes, (b) the best students should be singled out, (c) physical education is an isolated subject area, (c) physical education and athletics are inherently linked, and (d) because only the best can do physical education well, teachers must grade on effort. Findings demonstrate how extreme ego orientations were actualized in preservice teachers’ perspectives of teaching.

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Terry Rupert and Craig Buschner

Researchers have studied teaching and coaching separately, despite the fact that these roles overlap. The purpose of this study was to compare the instructional behaviors of educators who were engaged in the dual role of teaching high school physical education and coaching baseball. Nine teacher/coaches were observed using the ASU Observation Instrument. Of the 13 behavioral categories observed, significant differences were found in 5 categories. Coaching behaviors were greater for preinstruction, praise, and silence. Teaching behaviors were greater for the categories of management and the category “other.” The results demonstrate that instructional behaviors can vary depending upon context. This study supplements a beginning data base for comparisons of pedagogical behaviors of teacher/coaches.

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Terry L. Rizzo

This study assessed the attitudes of physical educators (n = 194) toward teaching handicapped pupils in the regular class. The survey instrument used was the Physical Educators Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped (PEATH), which assesses teacher attitudes according to the type of handicapping condition (learning and physical) and grade level (K-3, 4-6, 7-8). A 2 × 3 randomized block factorial design and the Tukey (HSD) post hoc analysis were applied to the data. Results indicated that physical educators held more favorable attitudes toward teaching pupils with learning handicaps than those with physical handicaps. Furthermore, as grade level advanced from primary (K-3) to intermediate (4-6) and upper (7-8) grades, teacher attitudes became progressively less favorable.

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Marcia Matanin and Connie Collier

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe three preservice teachers’ beliefs as they evolved throughout a 4-year teacher preparation program. Data collection spanned 5 years and included formal interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and document analysis of reflective writings. The results indicated that participants assimilated program messages into their beliefs about teaching physical education relative to elementary content, teaching effectiveness, and the importance of planning. Participants were less likely to assimilate program messages about classroom management and the purpose of physical education due to the impact of their own biographies. Participants were in favor of emphasizing effort and participation and rejected the program philosophy on assessment of student learning. Data suggest that participants’ K–12 school experiences as well as their lived experiences play a powerful role in the formation of their beliefs about teaching physical education.

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Fred L. Martens

This is an extension of a 1977 study on the effectiveness, in terms of success in student teaching, of a process for screening students for a physical education teacher preparation program. Preentry data including interview ratings, secondary school GPAs, and skill and fitness scores, as well as postentry data including university GPAs, were correlated with student teaching ratings (STRs) on a total of402 graduates between 1967 and 1983 at the University of Victoria. In the 1986 study, in addition to the correlations, ANOVAs were computed. The correlation matrix revealed significant but low positive correlations between secondary GPAs and university GPAs generally, and between STR and 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-year GPA, respectively. ANOVAs revealed no significant differences in achieved STRs between interview categories, teaching attitude categories, or the four levels of entering GPAs. The only predictive power of preentry data was exhibited by entering GPA in presaging academic attainment in the 5-year program. In general, no preentry data were helpful in predicting teaching success.

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Stephen Silverman

The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze research on teaching in doctoral programs. Research on teaching was differentiated from research on teacher education. Abstracts of research were obtained from Dissertation Abstracts International for dissertations completed from 1975 to 1984. Data were recorded for the year the dissertation was completed, primary and secondary (if any) focus of the study, observation instruments used, population, and the type of statistics used to analyze the data. Some 120 studies were identified as research on teaching in physical education. A majority of the studies (55) were comparisons of teaching methods using no observation instrument. Methods research was followed in frequency by descriptive research (22), instrument development (16), and comparisons among student subgroups (15). Systematic observation was not used in 60 studies. Of those studies where systematic observation was used, specific instruments were developed for research and other common instruments were employed. Most research occurred in elementary and secondary schools. A large proportion of the studies used univariate statistics to complete the data analysis.

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Tom Sharpe, Hosung So, Hasan Mavi and Seth Brown

Based on sequential behavior analysis (SBA) approaches to clinical practice activities (Sharpe, Lounsbery, & Bahls, 1997) and on results from school-university collaboration approaches to teacher education (Sharpe, Lounsbery, Golden, & Deibler, 1999), this study analyzed the effects of different supervisory personnel and practice-teaching settings on the relative effectiveness of SBA feedback and goal-setting practices. Teaching performances of two matched groups of undergraduates (N = 4) were observed. An A-B-A-C multiple baseline design with a treatment reversal across participants was used. The B-phase consisted of school-based practice teaching, the C-phase consisted of peer-based practice teaching, and the multiple baseline represented the differing times in which the same SBA feedback treatment was administered. Results demonstrated substantial improvement in select teacher and student practices in the school-based setting but a limited effect in the peer-based setting. Participant response data provided additional support for school-based activities. This study endorses a collaborative field-based approach to teacher education and contradicts the literature in nonsupport.

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Gylton Da Matta, Linda Gagen and Michael C. Rhoads

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of using developmentally appropriate serving strategies that will promote the game of volleyball and facilitate learning while minimizing injury. A critical review of serving discusses the main developmental, maturational, and technical issues related to socialization and long-term development in volleyball. Teaching complex serving styles (such as the jump serve to athletes under the age of 14) might have implications for athletes’ long-term development and might lead to injury. The adoption of developmentally appropriate practices in coaching young athletes is still a novelty for many coaches. Therefore, this article stresses the importance of implementing adapted or modified games and of teaching skills in a progressive fashion to aid development.

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Jenny Parker

The purpose of this study was to reconstruct high school physical education teachers’ views of effective teaching and to examine the underlying rationales behind these definitions. The participants were 14 experienced high school physical education teachers. Three methods of data collection were employed: critical incidents, the Q-sort technique, and informal interviews. Inductive content analysis was used to examine the critical incident forms, and the resulting themes formed the items in the Q-sort. The teachers’ underlying rationales for the rankings in the Q-sort were examined in the informal interviews. The overall results revealed that the majority of the teachers in this study defined effective teaching as a hierarchy of pedagogical practices in which organization, management, discipline, and control form the base, with student success being the ultimate goal.

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Mario Díaz-Cueto, Juan Luis Hernández-Álvarez and Francisco Javier Castejón

The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of in-service Physical Education (PE) teachers when using Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in teaching sports. Data were gathered from interviews, work group meetings, and participants’ diaries. The results show the difficulties PE teachers had in the planning and implementation of TGfU. In the initial stage of implementing TGfU, teachers reported feelings of insecurity to the point of doubting their own pedagogical expertise and knowledge. They also reported anxiety and exhaustion. Once they surpassed the first stage, teachers’ feelings of satisfaction increased in parallel with students’ improvement, in particular because students with the lowest skill level had made significant progress in decision-making, overall compression of the game, and tactical problem solving. This study identified some major challenges facing PE teachers wishing to implement TGfU, and thus allows for the development of support strategies to promote teachers’ pedagogical self-assessment.