The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.
Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner and Jeeheon Ryu
James E. Johnson, T.J. Herniak, Kelly Kwiatkowski and Amy Hill
Child protective services is a broad category that impacts a variety of organizations who work directly with children. Youth sport and recreation organizations, as well as universities who have youth services, are uniquely positioned for increased risk from coaches, counselors, volunteers, or administrators who have regular access to youth via their roles as trusted leaders. Sport management graduates often find themselves in these positions, or supervising individuals who hold these positions. With this premise in mind, it is essential that sport management students are exposed to the concept of child protection, and understand the potential ramifications if child protective measures are not followed. This case describes an incident occurring at a university kid’s camp where student employees serve as counselors. The incident places one counselor in a precarious situation, and forces his supervisor into some difficult decisions. The case allows students to evaluate the situation from an assortment of sport management perspectives including governance/policy considerations, legal ramifications, organizational theory, or ethical decision-making. Discussion questions encourage students to confront these perspectives and consider the role of child protection from a variety of vantage points (e.g., counselor, parent, administrator).
Steve Swanson and Samuel Y. Todd
This case is based on a collection of real-life scenarios encountered by employees working for professional sport organizations. The workplace in this environment contains circumstances distinct to the sport context which this case aims to highlight. A small work group of three individuals with diverse backgrounds representing key departments in a professional basketball club are brought together to lead a difficult challenge in the community. Over the course of the season, several meetings and personal interactions play out which present difficulties in productivity due to individual differences in human relations capacity and varying psychological connections with the environment. In combination with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) the special nature of employee identification in the professional sport setting, (2) an array of political skills which are relevant and useful to the sport workplace, and (3) the role of perceived personal control in sport organizations. An overview of theory and its specific application to the case is provided along with discussion questions and answers to aid instructors in effectively engaging with students around the topical areas.
Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson and Carol C. Irwin
This case study illustrates the complexity of decision making in public organizations, specifically highlighting the public health concern of drowning disparities in the United States. Using escalation of commitment theory, students must consider various factors in evaluating the overextended commitments of a local government in a complicated sociopolitical environment and with vital public needs that must be addressed through a local parks and recreation department. Facing a reduction in allocated resources, the department director, Claire Meeks, is tasked with determining which programs will receive higher priority despite the varied feedback from the management staff. To ensure students are provided a realistic scenario, this case offers a combination of fictional and real-life events from Splash Mid-South, an innovative swimming program in Memphis, Tennessee. Students must critically evaluate not only the merits of the swimming program, but the other sport, recreation, and parks programs that also merit an equitable share of the limited resources. Therefore, students are placed in a decision-making role that is common to managers of both public and private organizations. This case study is appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate sport management courses, with specific application to strategic management, organizational behavior, and recreation or leisure topics.
Marshall Magnusen, Andrew Gallucci, Stephen Kelly and Josh Brown
This case is a creative illustration of organizational politics in a National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) sports setting. It includes the exploration of several key concepts: political will, political skill, political perceptions, political behavior, and political influence theory. Upon arriving to his new job at the Division I level, an assistant men’s basketball coach finds himself to be a key piece in a political chess match between the highly successful Head Coach of the men’s basketball team and the Athletic Director (AD). The issue at hand is the hiring of the new assistant coach by the AD without the support of the head coach. The hire is an attempt by the AD to subvert and eventually replace the legendary head coach who, in the eyes of the AD, is long past his prime. Accordingly, the new hire encounters a variety of political scenarios, including strong resistance from the players and coaching staff of the men’s basketball team. This case, with the addition of detailed teaching notes, is designed to highlight salient elements of organizational politics to undergraduate and graduate sport management students, and explain how they can successfully apply this information and more effectively operate in the political sports arena.
organization. Overall, this fourth edition of Sport Finance by Fried, DeSchriver, and Mondello provides sport management faculty and students with a great resource for any program. This edition of the text has brought the theory and practical side of sport finance together and presented it in a way such that
James E. Johnson
( Bruening, Madsen, Evanovich, & Fuller, 2010 ; Eyler, Giles, & Schmide, 1996 ; Fuller et al., 2015 ). The theoretical underpinnings of service learning are generally traced to Dewey’s ( 1938 ) theory of experiential education, Lewin’s ( 1951 ) field theory of behavior, Freire’s ( 1973 ) critical pedagogy
G. Matthew Robinson, Mitchell J. Neubert and Glenn Miller
change. Chapter 15 is devoted to leadership and sport organizations Trait and behavioral approaches to describing leadership are explained along with various theories such as path goal and situational. Charismatic and transformational leadership are each represented with several paragraphs. To close the
Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite
( Gurses & Ozcan, 2015 ; Luksha, 2008 ; Ozcan & Santos, 2015 ; Santos & Eisenhardt, 2009 ). Sport managers can benefit from market theories that explain the challenges of constructing an emerging market. However, most research on sport markets and strategy focuses on established markets (e.g., Fujak
John Miller and Todd Seidler
must be able to create concepts that integrate their observations into logically sound theories (abstract conceptualization); and they must be able to use these theories to make decisions and solve problems (active experimentation). (p. 236). Figure 1 —Kolb’s ( 1981 ) experiential learning cycle. Class