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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan and Kelcey K. deWeber

measure hydration, urine color and weigh-ins/outs were most frequently used. No college ATs reported measuring urine-specific gravity, which is a better estimate of hydration status than urine color or weight. 16 , 17 Most ATs provided hydration education throughout the entire season. However, one AT

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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Philo U. Saunders, Avish P. Sharma, Stephen Crowcroft and Aaron J. Coutts

gravity (Atago Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) and osmolality (Model 3250 Osmometer; Advanced Instruments Inc, Norwood, MA). A pretest urine osmolality below 700 osmol·kg −1 and urine specific gravity below 1.020 was considered as an euhydrated state. 18 Participants drank water ad libitum until test

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Carolina F. Wilke, Felipe Augusto P. Fernandes, Flávio Vinícius C. Martins, Anísio M. Lacerda, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Samuel P. Wanner and Rob Duffield

(1) hydration status by urine specific gravity using a portable refractometer (Uridens Inlab, São Paulo, Brazil). This was followed by (2) creatine kinase (CK) concentration from capillary blood samples collected from the fingertip (Reflotron; Roche, Basileia, Switzerland; with intraassay coefficient

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Michael J. Zurawlew, Jessica A. Mee and Neil P. Walsh

for urine specific gravity using a handheld refractometer (Atago Uricon-Ne refractometer; NSG Precision Cells, New York, NY) to confirm euhydration (urine specific gravity < 1.030). 20 A rectal thermistor was fitted and T re was recorded continuously between 0900 and 1540 hours. A preexercise nude

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David N. Borg, Ian B. Stewart, John O. Osborne, Christopher Drovandi, Joseph T. Costello, Jamie Stanley and Geoffrey M. Minett

.1–88.9] 79.3 [68.9–88.5] 79.6 [68.8–88.4] 79.6 [69.3–88.8] 79.2 [68.7–88.4]  First void urine specific gravity CON 1.020 [1.016–1.025] 1.021 [1.017–1.024] 1.022 [1.018–1.025] 1.022 [1.018–1.025] 1.022 [1.018–1.026] HT 1.022 [1.017–1.027] 1.021 [1.017–1.026] 1.020 [1.017–1.024] 1.020 [1.015–1.024] 1.019 [1

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke

day 1 until day 9. Venous blood samples were collected on the morning of days 2 (baseline) and 10 (post) and skinfold thickness was measured on days 1 (baseline) and 10 (post). Morning BM and urine specific gravity (USG; data not shown) were measured daily. The study design was approved by the ethics

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Tori M. Stone, Jonathan E. Wingo, Brett S. Nickerson and Michael R. Esco

approved by the institutional review board at the University of Alabama, and subjects provided written informed consent prior to participation. Testing involved one visit to the laboratory. Subjects were instructed to arrive adequately hydrated, which was confirmed by urine specific gravity ≤1.020 measured

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Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro

.A. ( 2009 ). Hydration status, sweat rates, and rehydration education of youth football campers . Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 18 ( 4 ), 535 – 552 . PubMed doi:10.1123/jsr.18.4.535 10.1123/jsr.18.4.535 Osterberg , K.L. , Horswill , C.A. , & Baker , L.B. ( 2009 ). Pregame urine specific

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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

( Suppl. 2 ), 57 – 72 . doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 Logan-Sprenger , H.M. , & Spriet , L.L. ( 2013 ). The acute effects of fluid intake on urine specific gravity and fluid retention in a mildly dehydrated state . The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27 ( 4

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

perspective . J Athl Train . 2000 ; 35 ( 2 ): 161 . PubMed ID: 16558626 28. Osterberg KL , Horswill CA , Baker LB . Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition . J Athl Train . 2009 ; 44 ( 1 ): 53 – 57 . PubMed ID: 19180219 doi:10