We propose that physiological and performance tests used in sport science research and professional practice should be developed following a rigorous validation process, as is done in other scientific fields, such as clinimetrics, an area of research that focuses on the quality of clinical measurement and uses methods derived from psychometrics. In this commentary, we briefly review some of the attributes that must be explored when validating a test: the conceptual model, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Examples from the sport science literature are provided.
Franco M. Impellizzeri and Samuele M. Marcora
Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack
( Aadland & Ylvisåker, 2015 ) and has been validated in adults using indirect calorimetry ( Santos-Lozano et al., 2013 ) and doubly labelled water ( Chomistek et al., 2017 ) as criterion measures. GPS Monitoring GPS monitors (model: Qstarz BT-Q1000XT ® ; Qstarz International Inc., Taiwan) captured the
Alan K. Bourke, Espen A. F. Ihlen and Jorunn L. Helbostad
The measurement of physical activity patterns has the potential to reveal underlying causes of changes in modifiable risk-factors associated with health and well-being. Accurate classification of physical activity (PA) in free-living situations requires the use of a validated measurement system to
Lise Gauvin and W. Jack Rejeski
This research describes the development and validation of a measure designed to assess feeling states that occur in conjunction with acute bouts of physical activity—the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI). The EFI consists of 12 items that capture four distinct feeling states: revitalization, tranquility, positive engagement, and physical exhaustion. The multidimensional structure of the EFI is supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The subscales have good internal consistency, share expected variance with related constructs, are sensitive to exercise interventions, and appear responsive to the different social contexts in which activity may occur. After describing the psychometric properties of the EFI, several directions for theory-based research are proposed.
Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon, Timothy A. Brusseau, Patricia A. Eisenman, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Greg J. Welk and Matthew T. Mahar
Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13–16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74–0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg-1, min-1 to 8.27 ml·kg-1.min-1. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM’s Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31–0.62; Agreement = 75.5–89.9%; F = 0.08–0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM’s Healthy Fitness Zones.
Thomas A. Bergandi, Marsha G. Shryock and Thomas G. Titus
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a sport-specific version of Nideffer’s (1976a) Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS), specifically in regard to the sport of basketball. Collegiate basketball players (N = 43) participated in the research, 20 males and 23 females. The subjects were administered two instruments, the original TAIS and the Basketball Concentration Survey (BCS). The items contained in the BCS were a conversion of the 59 pertinent items contained in the original. The instruments were administered early in the season and the results were correlated with nine seasonal performance variables ranging from field-goal percentage to total number of steals. The results show the BCS to have significant reliability as well as significantly accounting for performance variability. The BCS had highly significant correlations with seven of the nine performance variables.
M. Elizabeth Verner, Jeffrey B. Hecht and A. Gigi Fansler
This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to assess athletics donor motivation. An extensive literature review, followed by interviews with athletics donors, identified 14 dimensions of donor motivation. Expert review and field testing of potential survey items reduced the number of dimensions of athletics donor motivation to 12. The final instrument, Motivation of Athletics Donors (MAD-1), was pilot tested with a sample of donors from 10 NCAA Division I athletics programs. Eleven scales were validated using confirmatory factor analysis, scale reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha), and item-to-total correlations. These results (a) provide the foundation necessary for systematic study of athletics donor behavior utilizing social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, and (b) support the use of the MAD-1 as a practical instrument for assessing the specific motivations of any particular donor group.
Edward MeAuley and Kerry S. Courneya
This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.
Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith
The role of peers has been neglected in research on youth psychosocial development in sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a measure of youth sport friendship quality for the purpose of facilitating such research. Dimensions and higher order themes found in Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) qualitative study of sport friendships among children and adolescents, as well as a core set of items from previous research (Parker & Asher, 1993), were used to develop and refine items for a sport friendship quality scale. Over the course of three studies, content, factorial, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability, were demonstrated for the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Future research is recommended to examine the role of children’s sport friendship quality on psychosocial development in the physical domain.
Nathan Smith, Damien Tessier, Yannis Tzioumakis, Eleanor Quested, Paul Appleton, Philippe Sarrazin, Athanasios Papaioannou and Joan L. Duda
This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda’s  conceptualization of “empowering” and “disempowering” climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes’ reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.