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Gavin Weedon

The process of digitization has transformed the ways in which content is reproduced and circulated online, rupturing long held distinctions between production and consumption in the (virtual) public sphere. In accordance with these developments over the past fifteen years, proponents for open access publishing in higher education have argued that the (not yet absolute) transition from physical to digital modes of journal production opens up unprecedented opportunities for redressing the restrictive terms of ownership and access currently perpetuated within an increasingly untenable journal publishing industry. Through this article, I advocate that the sociology of sport community hastens to question, challenge and reimagine its position within this industry in anticipation of a reformed publishing landscape. The impetus for the paper is to ask not whether sociologists of sport should or should not publish open access, but rather as open access publishing inevitably comes to pass in some form, what say will the field’s associations, societies and members have in these changes, and how might they help invigorate a public sociology of sport?

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Deborah L. Feltz, Norbert L. Kerr and Brandon C. Irwin

The present investigation examined the Köhler motivation gain effect in a health game using an absent partner, presented virtually. The Köhler effect occurs when an inferior team member performs a difficult task better in a team or coaction situation than one would expect from knowledge of his or her individual performance. The effect has been strongest in conjunctive task conditions in which the group’s potential productivity is equal to the productivity of its least capable member. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control, coaction, additive, and conjunctive) in a 4 (conditions) × 2 (gender) factorial design and performed a series of isometric plank exercises within an exercise game. They performed the first series of five exercises alone holding each position for as long as they could, and, after a rest period, those in the partner conditions were told they would do remaining trials with a same-sex virtual partner whom they could observe during their performance. The partner’s performance was manipulated to be always superior to the participant’s. Results showed that task persistence was significantly greater in all experimental conditions than in the individual control condition. The conjunctive condition was no more motivating than either the additive or coactive conditions. Results suggest that working out with virtually present, superior partners can improve persistence motivation on exercise game tasks.

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Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Cynthia A. Hasbrook

Televised texts of women’s sports are examined using the hermeneutical method. This study begins with the observation that women’s participation in team sports and certain “male-appropriate” individual sports is significantly lower than men’s participation in these sports. More striking yet is the media’s (particularly television’s) virtual disregard of women in team sports and certain individual sports. On the basis of these observations, the authors frame their research question: Do these imbalances constitute a symbolic denial of power for women? To answer this question, the authors investigate televised depictions of basketball, surfing, and marathon running. In each sport, the television narratives and visuals of the women’s competition are contrasted with those of the men’s competition. These depictions reveal a profound ambivalence in the reporting of the women’s sports, something that is not present in the reporting of the men’s sports. This ambivalence consists of conflicting messages about female athletes; positive portrayals of sportswomen are combined with subtly negative suggestions that trivialize or undercut the women’s efforts. Such trivialization is a way of denying power to women. The authors conclude by asserting that sport and leisure educators have an ethical obligation to redress the imbalance of power in the sporting world.

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Sukhvinder S. Obhi, Patrick Haggard, John Taylor and Alvaro Pascual-Leone

Bimanual coordination tasks form an essential part of our behaviour. One brain region thought to be involved in bimanual coordination is the supplementary motor area (SMA). We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 1 Hz for 5 min to create a temporary virtual lesion of the rostral portion of the human SMA immediately prior to performance of a goal-directed bimanual coordination task. In two control conditions, participants underwent sham stimulation or stimulation over the primary motor cortex (MI). The experimental task was to open a drawer with the left hand, catch a ball with the right hand, and reinsert the ball into the drawer through an aperture just big enough for the ball to pass through, again with the right hand. Hence, the actions of one hand depend upon the actions of the other. We calculated time intervals between the successive component actions of one hand (unimanual intervals) and actions of both hands (bimanual intervals) and analyzed these intervals separately. Interestingly, none of the unimanual intervals were affected by the rTMS, but the variability of a critical bimanual interval—the time between the left hand opening the drawer and the right hand starting to move to catch the ball—was increased by rTMS over the rostral parts of the SMA. No such effect was seen following rTMS over MI or after sham rTMS. Our results suggest that the rostral parts of the SMA play an important role in aspects of functional bimanual tasks, which involve tight temporal coordination between different motor actions of the two hands.

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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere

, whether through static advertisements, product placement, or auditory mentions ( Walsh et al., 2013 ). The least intrusive and most frequently used form of IGA is the static advertisement, particularly the virtual billboard ( King, Delfabbro, & Griffiths, 2010 ). There are growing numbers of brands that

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Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods

learning experiences ( Berge & Clark, 2005 ). In addition to online virtual schools and proprietary online courses for credit, there are a variety of ways schools and teachers can leverage the Internet to provide online-based learning opportunities for students. For example, popular online learning

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Brigid M. Lynch, Andrea Ramirez Varela and Terry Boyle

. For example, the Council will provide members with the following: • Newsletters describing key concepts and methods and highlighting recent publications that have employed causal inference or quantitative bias analysis methods to address physical activity–related questions. • A virtual journal club

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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited and Donald Bae

Coordinate System Definitions The pelvis local coordinate system was defined as follows: origin, Pelvis_Origin virtual marker; longitudinal axis, a vector extending from the Pelvis_Origin to the mid_Hip virtual marker; mediolateral axis, a vector extending from the Pelvis_Origin to the sacrum marker; and

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strategy matters without operational excellence. Harvard Business Review, 95 (5), 120–128. Harnessing the Power of Virtual Fan Communities Virtual fan communities (VFCs) or online message boards are not only an important means of communication, but also a lucrative platform for advertisers and

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Bart Roelands and Kevin De Pauw

. Artificial intelligence experts have been working on the implementation of virtual-, augmented-, and mixed-reality sessions into the microcycle planning of athletes. These strategies seemed science fiction only a few years ago but are now being used in tactical training sessions. The integration of