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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

, appears the most effective form of deception to elicit performance improvements. 5 In performance deception trials, athletes have raced against a virtual on-screen pacer whom they believed was programmed to mimic mean power output (MPO) from their previous best performance. In reality, the pacer was

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

provided body weight support. Each training session lasted at least 30 minutes and could last up to 1 hour, depending on the physical condition of the participant. A custom-designed virtual reality application allowed us to adjust each training session to the abilities of the participant. Each training

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Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler and Deborah L. Feltz

heart rate maximum. This cycle workload wattage was determined for each participant using an Astrand-Ryhming submaximal test prior to day 1 and would generally equate to a moderate–vigorous level of intensity. Participants were represented as an avatar, they previously chose, riding on a virtual trail

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

the other athletes. Renfree et al 31 have highlighted how the behavior of an athlete can influence the pacing strategy of all the others. Specifically, Konings et al 32 reported how pacing behavior is altered depending on the pacing profile of a virtual opponent. In this case, in fact, the decision

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

BOS. COM, which is a virtual point at the center of total body mass (which is dependent upon body segment alignment), and/or the COG, which is the vertical projection of the COM ( Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 2012 ). The active alignment of one body segment with another, and the BOS, with respect to

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

encourage participation. c Reinforcement of PA participation was offered by research personnel through nonverbal gestures (eg, fist bump), verbal praise (eg, “Great seeing you today!”), or earning tokens (eg, virtual tokens as a stamp in a PA passport to earn prizes or immediate tangible rewards such as

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

elbow exoskeleton based on shape memory alloy wire actuators . Appl Bionics Biomech . 2017 ; 2017 : 1 – 11 . PubMed ID: 29104424 doi:10.1155/2017/1605101 10.1155/2017/1605101 40. Ferrati F , Bortoletto R , Pagello E . Virtual modelling of a real exoskeleton constrained to a human

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

is, 2 markers on each side of the transducers and 2 markers on each side of the flywheel rotation center to create virtual markers at the fixed points where the rope runs into the ergometer flywheel on each side. The transducers were connected to an amplifier (Type 5073; Kistler Instruments AG), and

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

method is based on the principle of virtual work, 2 which assumes that a constant force is applied to the tendon. A constant force will allow a constant tendon length, so the measured tendon excursion represents a true displacement. In vivo, it is assumed that when no external moment acts on the joint

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Sarah M. Coppola, Philippe C. Dixon, Boyi Hu, Michael Y.C. Lin and Jack T. Dennerlein

. Santa Monica, CA : Human Factors and Ergonomics Society . 2. Varcholik PD , LaViola JJ , Hughes CE . Establishing a baseline for text entry for a multi-touch virtual keyboard . Int J Hum Comput Stud . 2012 ; 70 : 657 – 672 . doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 3