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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

provided body weight support. Each training session lasted at least 30 minutes and could last up to 1 hour, depending on the physical condition of the participant. A custom-designed virtual reality application allowed us to adjust each training session to the abilities of the participant. Each training

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Everton C. do Carmo, Renato Barroso, Andrew Renfree, Natalia R. da Silva, Saulo Gil and Valmor Tricoli

during time trial races 5 , 7 where the goal is to achieve the best time possible or in a well-controlled laboratory and against virtual opponents 8 where the effects of external influences as a position in the pack, environmental factor, and opponents behavior are less predominant than a real head

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

the other athletes. Renfree et al 31 have highlighted how the behavior of an athlete can influence the pacing strategy of all the others. Specifically, Konings et al 32 reported how pacing behavior is altered depending on the pacing profile of a virtual opponent. In this case, in fact, the decision

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Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler and Deborah L. Feltz

heart rate maximum. This cycle workload wattage was determined for each participant using an Astrand-Ryhming submaximal test prior to day 1 and would generally equate to a moderate–vigorous level of intensity. Participants were represented as an avatar, they previously chose, riding on a virtual trail

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

BOS. COM, which is a virtual point at the center of total body mass (which is dependent upon body segment alignment), and/or the COG, which is the vertical projection of the COM ( Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 2012 ). The active alignment of one body segment with another, and the BOS, with respect to

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

of pacing behavior. 2 , 4 As shown before in observational and experimental studies, an opponent could be such an affordance, inviting exercisers to adjust their pacing behavior. 4 – 6 For example, the presence of a virtual opponent has been revealed to improve performance. 5 , 7 – 9 Moreover

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

elbow exoskeleton based on shape memory alloy wire actuators . Appl Bionics Biomech . 2017 ; 2017 : 1 – 11 . PubMed ID: 29104424 doi:10.1155/2017/1605101 10.1155/2017/1605101 40. Ferrati F , Bortoletto R , Pagello E . Virtual modelling of a real exoskeleton constrained to a human

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

pedal force at the start of each TT. To replicate real-world TT cycling, participants consequently used a self-pacing strategy where gearing was adjusted throughout efforts using the virtual gear changer mounted to the handlebars. Feedback over elapsed time and strong encouragement were provided

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

is, 2 markers on each side of the transducers and 2 markers on each side of the flywheel rotation center to create virtual markers at the fixed points where the rope runs into the ergometer flywheel on each side. The transducers were connected to an amplifier (Type 5073; Kistler Instruments AG), and

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Sarah M. Coppola, Philippe C. Dixon, Boyi Hu, Michael Y.C. Lin and Jack T. Dennerlein

. Santa Monica, CA : Human Factors and Ergonomics Society . 2. Varcholik PD , LaViola JJ , Hughes CE . Establishing a baseline for text entry for a multi-touch virtual keyboard . Int J Hum Comput Stud . 2012 ; 70 : 657 – 672 . doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 3