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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

, appears the most effective form of deception to elicit performance improvements. 5 In performance deception trials, athletes have raced against a virtual on-screen pacer whom they believed was programmed to mimic mean power output (MPO) from their previous best performance. In reality, the pacer was

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

provided body weight support. Each training session lasted at least 30 minutes and could last up to 1 hour, depending on the physical condition of the participant. A custom-designed virtual reality application allowed us to adjust each training session to the abilities of the participant. Each training

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Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler and Deborah L. Feltz

heart rate maximum. This cycle workload wattage was determined for each participant using an Astrand-Ryhming submaximal test prior to day 1 and would generally equate to a moderate–vigorous level of intensity. Participants were represented as an avatar, they previously chose, riding on a virtual trail

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

the other athletes. Renfree et al 31 have highlighted how the behavior of an athlete can influence the pacing strategy of all the others. Specifically, Konings et al 32 reported how pacing behavior is altered depending on the pacing profile of a virtual opponent. In this case, in fact, the decision

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

BOS. COM, which is a virtual point at the center of total body mass (which is dependent upon body segment alignment), and/or the COG, which is the vertical projection of the COM ( Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 2012 ). The active alignment of one body segment with another, and the BOS, with respect to

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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

kinesthesia and the use of MRs of intentional movements in children and concluded that the development of kinesthetic perception takes many years to fully mature and is thought to end around late adolescence. Using a virtual radial Fitts task, Caeyenberghs et al. ( 2009 ) reported rapid growth in the

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

pedal force at the start of each TT. To replicate real-world TT cycling, participants consequently used a self-pacing strategy where gearing was adjusted throughout efforts using the virtual gear changer mounted to the handlebars. Feedback over elapsed time and strong encouragement were provided

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

elbow exoskeleton based on shape memory alloy wire actuators . Appl Bionics Biomech . 2017 ; 2017 : 1 – 11 . PubMed ID: 29104424 doi:10.1155/2017/1605101 10.1155/2017/1605101 40. Ferrati F , Bortoletto R , Pagello E . Virtual modelling of a real exoskeleton constrained to a human

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Sarah M. Coppola, Philippe C. Dixon, Boyi Hu, Michael Y.C. Lin and Jack T. Dennerlein

. Santa Monica, CA : Human Factors and Ergonomics Society . 2. Varcholik PD , LaViola JJ , Hughes CE . Establishing a baseline for text entry for a multi-touch virtual keyboard . Int J Hum Comput Stud . 2012 ; 70 : 657 – 672 . doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.05.007 3

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

of pacing behavior. 2 , 4 As shown before in observational and experimental studies, an opponent could be such an affordance, inviting exercisers to adjust their pacing behavior. 4 – 6 For example, the presence of a virtual opponent has been revealed to improve performance. 5 , 7 – 9 Moreover