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Patricia E. Longmuir and Oded Bar-Or

This study examined gender, disability type, age, and specific diagnostic category in relation to habitual physical activity levels (HPA), perceived fitness (PF), and perceived participation limitations (PPL) of youths, ages 6 to 20 years, in Ontario, Canada. Data collected through a mailed survey (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 1994) were reanalyzed using ANOVA and chi square statistics to provide new information. The 458 girls and 499 boys were classified by disability type: physical, chronic medical, visual, and hearing. Significant differences (p < .01) were between (a) HPA and disability type, specific diagnostic category, and age; (b) PF and disability type; and (c) PPL and disability type. Gender did not influence the results. Youths with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and visual impairment had the most sedentary lifestyles.

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Andrea R. Taliaferro, Lindsay Hammond and Kristi Wyant

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of completion of an adapted physical education (APE) course with an associated on-campus practicum on preservice physical educators’ self-efficacy beliefs toward the inclusion of individuals with specific disabilities (autism, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, and visual impairments). Preservice students in physical education teacher education (N = 98) at a large U.S. Midwestern university enrolled in 1 of 2 separate 15-wk APE courses with an associated 9-wk practicum experience were surveyed at the beginning, middle, and conclusion of each course. Results of 4 separate 2-factor fixed-effect split-plot ANOVAs revealed significant improvements in self-efficacy beliefs from Wk 1 to Wk 8 and from Wk 1 to Wk 15 across all disability categories. Significant differences between courses were found only for autism in Time 1.

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Michelle Grenier

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine an inclusive, third grade physical education class containing a child with severe cerebral palsy and a visual impairment from a social constructionist perspective. Data were collected from four primary sources over a six-month period: interviews, observations, document review, and journals. Boyzaitis’s (1998) five-step process was utilized in the data analysis, which uncovered three primary themes: the teacher’s belief in the development of social skills for students with and without disabilities, the teacher’s use of purposeful strategies to accommodate students with disabilities, and student learning shaped by personal experience. Student and teacher experiences were interpreted within the conceptual framework of social construction as a means of describing relevant and meaningful relationships.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Elizabeth Crush


No study has comprehensively examined the independent and combined effects of sensory impairment, physical activity and balance on mortality risk, which was this study’s purpose.


Data from the population-based 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Balance was assessed via the Romberg test. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed objectively using a standard monofilament. Visual impairment was objectively assessed using an autorefractor. Hearing impairment was assessed via self-report. A 5-level index variable (higher score is worse) was calculated based on the participant’s degree of sensory impairment, dysfunctional balance and physical inactivity.


Among the 1658 participants (age 40–85 yrs), 228 died during the median follow-up period of 92 months. Hearing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.18; P = .40), vision (HR = 1.17; P = .58) and peripheral neuropathy (HR = 1.06; P = .71) were not independently associated with all-cause mortality, but physical activity (HR = 0.97; P = .01) and functional balance (HR = 0.59; P = .03) were. Compared with those with an index score of 0, the HR (95% CI) for those with an index score of 1 to 3, respectively, were 1.20 (0.46–3.13), 2.63 (1.08–6.40) and 2.88 (1.36–6.06).


Physical activity and functional balance are independent contributors to survival.

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford and Jill Pawlowski

, 33 (3), 874–889. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002381 Comparison of Motivation Among Adolescents With Visual Impairments While there have been differences in the operational definition of physical literacy across studies, many have identified motivation as an important component in the development of

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ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski and Daniel W. Tindall

Brazilian Men With Visual Impairments: Physical Activity Participation Benefits associated with regular engagement in physical activity (PA) have been well documented and are universal for all individuals, such as those with visual impairments (VIs). However, research examining how adults with VI

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee

for Students Who Are Blind Over the past number of years, researchers have explored the perspectives of those with disabilities to better understand their experiences in physical education. However, little research has been done focusing on those students with visual impairments or blindness

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Jill Pawlowski, E. Andrew Pitchford, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee

Edited by ZáNean McClain

& Exercise, 49 (12), 2469–2477. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001390 Reflections of Adults With Visual Impairments on Physical Education There is a need to understand the perspectives of students with disabilities in physical education (PE) to improve practices. Previous research has focused on perspectives of

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Lijuan Wang

combination of all three components. A case study by Herold and Dandolo ( 2009 ) explored the personal experiences and perspectives of a pupil with visual impairments regarding PE inclusion. Interview and observation results addressed four important areas for the PE learning and participation of students with

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Josephine Blagrave and Taylor Guy

, homeless children, young offenders, refugees, and asylum seekers. Most relevant for the readership of Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , Chapter 7 also discusses conducting research with children with disabilities, including practical tips for students who are wheelchair users, have visual impairments