The underrepresentation of women in the Paralympics movement warrants attention as the world prepares for Atlanta 1996, when Paralympics (conducted after the Summer Olympics) will attract approximately 3,500 athletes with physical disability or visual impairment from 102 countries. Barriers that confront women with disability, the Paralympic movement, and adapted physical activity as a profession and scholarly discipline that stresses advocacy and attitude theories are presented. Two theories (reasoned action and contact) that have been tested in various contexts are woven together as an approach particularly applicable to women in sport and feminists who care about equal access to opportunity for all women. Women with disability are a social minority that is both ignored and oppressed. Sport and feminist theory and action should include disability along with gender, race/ethnicity, class, and age as concerns and issues.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine an inclusive, third grade physical education class containing a child with severe cerebral palsy and a visual impairment from a social constructionist perspective. Data were collected from four primary sources over a six-month period: interviews, observations, document review, and journals. Boyzaitis’s (1998) five-step process was utilized in the data analysis, which uncovered three primary themes: the teacher’s belief in the development of social skills for students with and without disabilities, the teacher’s use of purposeful strategies to accommodate students with disabilities, and student learning shaped by personal experience. Student and teacher experiences were interpreted within the conceptual framework of social construction as a means of describing relevant and meaningful relationships.
Paul D. Loprinzi and Elizabeth Crush
No study has comprehensively examined the independent and combined effects of sensory impairment, physical activity and balance on mortality risk, which was this study’s purpose.
Data from the population-based 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Balance was assessed via the Romberg test. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed objectively using a standard monofilament. Visual impairment was objectively assessed using an autorefractor. Hearing impairment was assessed via self-report. A 5-level index variable (higher score is worse) was calculated based on the participant’s degree of sensory impairment, dysfunctional balance and physical inactivity.
Among the 1658 participants (age 40–85 yrs), 228 died during the median follow-up period of 92 months. Hearing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.18; P = .40), vision (HR = 1.17; P = .58) and peripheral neuropathy (HR = 1.06; P = .71) were not independently associated with all-cause mortality, but physical activity (HR = 0.97; P = .01) and functional balance (HR = 0.59; P = .03) were. Compared with those with an index score of 0, the HR (95% CI) for those with an index score of 1 to 3, respectively, were 1.20 (0.46–3.13), 2.63 (1.08–6.40) and 2.88 (1.36–6.06).
Physical activity and functional balance are independent contributors to survival.
ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford and Jill Pawlowski
, 33 (3), 874–889. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002381 Comparison of Motivation Among Adolescents With Visual Impairments While there have been differences in the operational definition of physical literacy across studies, many have identified motivation as an important component in the development of
ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski and Daniel W. Tindall
Brazilian Men With Visual Impairments: Physical Activity Participation Benefits associated with regular engagement in physical activity (PA) have been well documented and are universal for all individuals, such as those with visual impairments (VIs). However, research examining how adults with VI
Jill Pawlowski, E. Andrew Pitchford, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee
Edited by ZáNean McClain
& Exercise, 49 (12), 2469–2477. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001390 Reflections of Adults With Visual Impairments on Physical Education There is a need to understand the perspectives of students with disabilities in physical education (PE) to improve practices. Previous research has focused on perspectives of
ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee
for Students Who Are Blind Over the past number of years, researchers have explored the perspectives of those with disabilities to better understand their experiences in physical education. However, little research has been done focusing on those students with visual impairments or blindness
combination of all three components. A case study by Herold and Dandolo ( 2009 ) explored the personal experiences and perspectives of a pupil with visual impairments regarding PE inclusion. Interview and observation results addressed four important areas for the PE learning and participation of students with
ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall and E. Andrew Pitchford
transition planning relating to recreation among adults who are deafblind: A recall analysis. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 112 (1), 73–86.
Josephine Blagrave and Taylor Guy
, homeless children, young offenders, refugees, and asylum seekers. Most relevant for the readership of Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , Chapter 7 also discusses conducting research with children with disabilities, including practical tips for students who are wheelchair users, have visual impairments