Search Results

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 732 items for :

  • "young adults" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Jasper Schipperijn, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Merete S. Nielsen, Anneli F. Holdt, Anders Grøntved, Annette K. Ersbøll and Peter L. Kristensen

Background:

This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Movability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults.

Methods:

Data collected from 177 persons participating in the Danish part of the European Youth Hearth Study (EYHS) was used to examine the effect of the built environment on PA. A MI was developed using objectively measured built environment characteristics, and included residential density, recreational facilities, daily destinations and street connectivity.

Results:

Results showed a positive cross-sectional association between MI and PA. PA decreased from baseline to follow-up. MI increased, primarily due to participants relocating to larger cities. An increase in MI from baseline to follow-up was associated with a reduced decrease in PA for females.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that the built environment is a determinant for PA, especially for females. The found gender differences might suggest the need to develop gender specific environmental indices in future studies. The validity of the measures can be further improved by creating domain specific PA measures as well as domain specific environmental indices and this can potentially reveal more specific built environment determinants for PA.

Restricted access

Hsuan Su, Nai-Jen Chang, Wen-Lan Wu, Lan-Yuen Guo and I-Hua Chu

Context:

Foam rolling has been proposed to improve muscle function, performance, and joint range of motion (ROM). However, whether a foam rolling protocol can be adopted as a warm-up to improve flexibility and muscle strength is unclear.

Objectives:

To examine and compare the acute effects of foam rolling, static stretching, and dynamic stretching used as part of a warm-up on flexibility and muscle strength of knee flexion and extension.

Design:

Crossover study.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

15 male and 15 female college students (age 21.43 ± 1.48 y, weight 65.13 ± 12.29 kg, height 166.90 ± 6.99 cm).

Main Outcome Measures:

Isokinetic peak torque was measured during knee extension and flexion at an angular velocity of 60°/second. Flexibility of the quadriceps was assessed by the modified Thomas test, while flexibility of the hamstrings was assessed using the sit-and-reach test. The 3 interventions were performed by all participants in random order on 3 days separated by 48–72 hours.

Results:

The flexibility test scores improved significantly more after foam rolling as compared with static and dynamic stretching. With regard to muscle strength, only knee extension peak torque (pre vs. postintervention) improved significantly after the dynamic stretching and foam rolling, but not after static stretching. Knee flexion peak torque remained unchanged.

Conclusions:

Foam rolling is more effective than static and dynamic stretching in acutely increasing flexibility of the quadriceps and hamstrings without hampering muscle strength, and may be recommended as part of a warm-up in healthy young adults.

Restricted access

Remco J. Baggen, Jaap H. van Dieën, Sabine M. Verschueren, Evelien Van Roie and Christophe Delecluse

sample size, 24 post hoc tests consisted of paired samples t tests within groups. Within-group analyses of the normalized signals were performed using Friedman tests for the young adults and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for the older adults. Overall level of significance was set at P  = .05. Results A

Restricted access

Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Adriana Pérez, David R. Jacobs Jr, Joowon Lee, Harold W. Kohl III and Barbara Sternfeld

studies, like Coronary Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), this very decision has followed several years of data collection via self-report. Difficulties with this strategy can arise, however, particularly when there are inconsistent results by a measurement method. In turn, the decisions that the

Restricted access

Cornelius John, Andreas Stotz, Julian Gmachowski, Anna Lina Rahlf, Daniel Hamacher, Karsten Hollander and Astrid Zech

, in the current study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an elastic external ankle support on static balance, dynamic balance, and jump landing performance among young adults with CAI compared with healthy counterparts. We hypothesized that the elastic ankle support is effective in improving jump

Restricted access

Ethan E. Hull, Jeannette M. Garcia, Angela M. Kolen and Robert J. Robertson

Background:

New parents have to adjust to less sleep, less free time, and more responsibility as a result of having a child. The purpose of this study was to examine how having a child impacts the physical activity (PA) beliefs and behaviors of new parents over a 2- to 3-year time period.

Methods:

Participants included 49 men and women (31% men, 96% white) who did not have a child at baseline (26.3 ± 1.1 years old) but did have a child at the time of follow-up (28.9 ± 1.7 years old). The child’s mean age at follow-up was 12 ± 7 months old. PA was measured via questionnaire at baseline and again at follow-up. Interviews regarding PA occurred at follow-up.

Results:

PA significantly decreased in parents across the time period (P < .001), and parents attributed this decrease to having a child and being pregnant. Parents mentioned they lack time, energy, and motivation for PA as a result of caring for a new child. Parents who maintained their activity level stated they prioritized PA and chose activities they enjoyed.

Conclusion:

These results show that although activity levels decrease in individuals who have a child, PA in new parents may be a function of priority, intensity, and enjoyment.

Full access

René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

offered many opportunities to be physically active, compared with the European Union average of 68% ( European Commission, 2006 ). The study focused on young adults because they are particularly vulnerable to weight gain ( Huang et al., 2003 ) and can be difficult to reach through public health campaigns

Restricted access

Noah J. Rosenblatt, Christopher P. Hurt and Mark D. Grabiner

Recent experimental findings support theoretical predictions that across walking conditions the motor system chooses foot placement to achieve a constant minimum “margin of stability” (MOSmin)—distance between the extrapolated center of mass and base of support. For example, while step width varies, similar average MOSmin exists between overground and treadmill walking and between overground and compliant/irregular surface walking. However, predictions regarding the invariance of MOSmin to step-by-step changes in foot placement cannot be verified by average values. The purpose of this study was to determine average changes in, and the sensitivity of MOSmin to varying step widths during two walking tasks. Eight young subjects walked on a dual-belt treadmill before and after receiving information that stepping on the physical gap between the belts causes no adverse effects. Information decreased step width by 17% (p = .01), whereas MOSmin was unaffected (p = .12). Regardless of information, subject-specific regressions between step-by-step values of step width and MOSmin explained, on average, only 5% of the shared variance (β = 0.11 ± 0.05). Thus, MOSmin appears to be insensitive to changing step width. Accordingly, during treadmill walking, step width is chosen to maintain MOSmin. If MOSmin remains insensitive to step width across other dynamic tasks, then assessing an individual’s stability while performing theses tasks could help describe the health of the motor system.

Restricted access

Brent M. Kelln, Patrick O. McKeon, Lauren M. Gontkof and Jay Hertel

Context:

Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has been shown to be a reliable, objective way to obtain strength measurements in elderly and physically impaired subjects.

Objective:

To estimate the intratester, intertester, and intersession reliability of HHD testing of lower extremity movements in young, healthy subjects.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Sports medicine laboratory.

Participants:

Nine males and eleven females (Mean age = 26 years).

Measurements:

Strength measures of 11 right lower extremity movements were taken by 3 different testers on 2 separate days using a HHD.

Results:

Intratester ICC range was .77 to .97 with SEM range of .01 to .44 kg. Mean intertester ICC range was .65 to .87 with SEM range of .11 to 1.05 kg. Mean intersession ICC range was .62 to .92 with SEM range of .01 to .83 kg.

Conclusions:

HHD has the potential to be a reliable tool for strength measurements in healthy, strong subjects; however, there are noteworthy limitations with movements where subjects can overpower the testers.

Restricted access

Verity Cleland, Michael Schmidt, Jo Salmon, Terry Dywer and Alison Venn

Background:

We investigated associations of total sedentary behavior (SB) and objectively-measured and self-reported physical activity (PA) with obesity.

Methods:

Data from 1662 adults (26–36 years) included daily steps, self-reported PA, sitting, and waist circumference. SB and PA were dichotomized at the median, then 2 variables created (SB/self-reported PA; SB/objectively-measured PA) each with 4 categories: low SB/high PA (reference group), high SB/high PA, low SB/low PA, high SB/low PA.

Results:

Overall, high SB/low PA was associated with 95 –168% increased obesity odds. Associations were stronger and more consistent for steps than self-reported PA for men (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.36–5.32 and OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01–3.79, respectively) and women (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.58–4.49 and OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.21–3.31, respectively). Among men, obesity was higher when daily steps were low, irrespective of sitting (low SB/low steps OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.03–4.17; high SB/low steps OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.36–5.32).

Conclusions:

High sitting and low activity increased obesity odds among adults. Irrespective of sitting, men with low step counts had increased odds of obesity. The findings highlight the importance of engaging in physical activity and limiting sitting.