American individuals, we also conducted an exploratory analysis by racial background. As African Americans tend to have higher FFM and lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) for the same BW ( 9 , 24 ), we hypothesized that they would have higher fitness levels than white adolescents and would be less
S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael and Amanda E. Staiano
This study investigates whether African American student-athletes receive encouragement to participate in sport from the black community (e.g., parents) or from other socializing agents (e.g., teachers, coaches, and friends). A questionnaire was administered to 23 teams in two summer basketball leagues in Washington, D.C., during the summer of 1985. The findings indicate that African American student-athletes are more likely to perceive social support for playing basketball from coaches and friends and especially teachers, who provide encouragement for African Americans to participate in sport, but not from parents. Moreover, support for playing basketball is associated with professional sport aspirations for black, but not white, males.
Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback
a projected 2010 population of 3959 residents in census tract 19, I 90% (n = 3560) of whom are of African American heritage. II Thirty one percent (n = 1224) of these residents are under the age of 18 years. III This area of Chattanooga is represented by over 1581 occupied households of which 68
Trevor Bopp and Michael Sagas
The purpose of this study was to ascertain if positional segregation continues at the quarterback position in college football. To determine its existence, we examined differences in run and pass plays executed by African American and White quarterbacks over four different seasons in the NCAA DI-FBS (N = 548). Results revealed significant differences such that African American quarterbacks rushed the ball more and averaged fewer pass attempts than their White counterparts. Likewise, the percentage of rush attempts made by African Americans nearly doubled that of Whites, while White quarterbacks passed the ball 12% more often than their African American counterparts. We argue that these findings support that a new form of discrimination and positional segregation, one we define as racial tasking, may exist.
Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano
guidelines scored better on several health indicators than those meeting fewer components of the guidelines. 8 The purpose of this study was to determine the association between meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines and cardiometabolic risk factors in white and African American children and adolescents
Kelliann K. Davis, Deborah F. Tate, Wei Lang, Rebecca H. Neiberg, Kristen Polzien, Amy D. Rickman, Karen Erickson and John M. Jakicic
African-Americans lose less weight during a behavioral intervention compared with Whites, which may be from differences in dietary intake or physical activity.
Subjects (30% African American, 70% White; n = 346; 42.4 ± 9.0 yrs.; BMI = 33.0 ± 3.7 kg/m2) in an 18-month weight loss intervention were randomized to a standard behavioral (SBWI) or a stepped-care (STEP) intervention. Weight, dietary intake, self-report and objective physical activity, and fitness were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months.
Weight loss at 18 months was greater in Whites (–8.74 kg with 95% CI [–10.10, –7.35]) compared with African Americans (–5.62 kg with 95% CI [–7.86, –3.37]) (P = .03) in the SBWI group and the STEP group (White: –7.48 kg with 95% CI [–8.80, –6.17] vs. African American: –4.41kg with 95% CI [–6.41, –2.42]) (P = .01). Patterns of change in dietary intake were not different between groups. Objective physical activity (PA) changed over time (P < .0001) and was higher in Whites when compared with African Americans (P = .01).
Whites lost more weight (3.10 kg) than African American adults. Although there were no differences in dietary intake, Whites had higher levels of objective PA and fitness. Thus, the discrepancy in weight loss may be due to differences in PA rather than dietary intake. However, the precise role of these factors warrants further investigation.
Charles Macaulay, Joseph Cooper and Shaun Dougherty
found that African American players who come from lower socio-economic communities have a higher likelihood of being drafted compared to African Americans who came from less dense, higher educated, higher income socio-economic communities. Further, individuals who are White have a higher chance of being
Benjamin Margolis and Jane Allyn Piliavin
This research studied stacking—position segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports—in the 1992 Major League Baseball season using a multivariate analysis, with control variables of height, weight, age, power, speed, and skill. The strong relationship between race and centrality found in previous studies was confirmed; African-American players were predominantly in the outfield positions, Latino players in the middle infield positions, and white players in the most central position of catcher, as well as the other infield positions. The multiple regression analyses revealed direct effects of some control variables on centrality; however, only the variable of speed was found significantly to reduce the bivariate relationship between being African-Americans and centrality. A proportion of the variance in allocation of African-Americans to the outfield may thus be due to this job-related ability; the residual race effects, which account for the majority of the explained variance, must at present still be attributed to direct discrimination.
R. Saylor Breckenridge and Pat Rubio Goldsmith
We examine the effect of the visibility of African American, Latino, and Jewish baseball players on attendance at Major League Baseball games between 1930 and 1961. We invoke the sociological concepts of “social distance,” “spectacle,” and “group threat” and incorporate data focusing on the era of integration to expand on previous research in this arena. Notably, African American and Latino player visibility—but not that of other groups—is revealed to increase attendance at games. This effect weakens for losing teams and in cities with relatively larger minority populations. The findings suggest a synthesis of theories is possible.
C. Keith Harrison, Suzanne Malia Lawrence and Scott J. Bukstein
While the sport sociology community has had a long-running conversation about the relationship between athletes’ success and race, there are few empirical investigations of individuals’ attitudes regarding the connection of race and athletic performance. This study on White college students’ explanations of White (and African American) athleticism attempts to push this discussion of race and sport. Using a qualitative, open-ended question we elicited explanations from White college students about athletic performance. Findings revealed that White students explained White athleticism through discussions of African American athleticism. In addition, White student participants avoided biological explanations regarding White athletes’ success.