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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

, and maintaining optimal body composition are the most common nutrition challenges (Table  4 ; Norouzy et al., 2013 ). These challenges are magnified when Ramadan occurs across major sporting events (e.g., the Olympics, the FIFA World Cup). Competing in a non-Muslim country and requirements of weight

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Shawn Forde and Brian Wilson

Rio de Janeiro based non-governmental organization. It was founded in 2010 as a way of bringing visibility to the impacts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympics in Rio. As they state: This news site,, is our primary vehicle for publishing the perspectives of community

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Roger Baines

migration of soccer players and coaches ( Poli, 2014 ) creates distinctive and diverse multilingual professional communities. This study focuses on soccer because of this distinctive diversity and also because it is a hugely popular professional sport on a global scale (e.g., the 2014 FIFA World Cup

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Ray Gamache

Pitana’s Dance In the first half of 2018 FIFA World Cup final match between France and Croatia, referee Néstor Pitana drew a rectangle with his hands signaling for replay, after having been alerted via headset from the video assistant referee (VAR), who is, with the assistant VAR, the video match

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Nola Agha and Marijke Taks

). Research methods for sports studies . 3rd ed . London, UK : Routledge . Késenne , S. ( 2012 ). The economic impact, costs and benefits of the FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games: Who wins, who loses? In W. Maennig & A.S. Zimbalist (Eds.), International handbook on the economics of mega

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu

1973–2007 . Rivista di Diritto ed Economia dello Sport, 5 , 112 – 151 . Watanabe , N. , Wicker , P. , & Yan , G. ( 2017 ). Weather conditions, travel distance, rest, and running performance: The 2014 FIFA world cup and implications for the future . Journal of Sport Management, 31 , 27

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John Charles Bradbury

Soccer (MLS) began operating in 1996 following the United States hosting the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The league struggled during its first decade of operation, fluctuating between 10 and 12 clubs, with an average attendance that stagnated at around 15,000 spectators per game (see Figure  1 ). Since that

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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou

. ( 2013 ). Child Exploitation and the FIFA World Cup: A review of risks and protective interventions . London, UK : Brunel University . Brown , T.A. ( 2006 ). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research . Methodology in the Social Sciences . doi:10.1198/tas.2008.s98 Brown , T.A. ( 2014

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison

abandonment of environmental policies surrounding sporting events, mega-events (e.g., FIFA World Cup, Olympic and Paralympic Games), and the construction standards of college athletic facilities compared to typical campus buildings (e.g., Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver certification

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Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska and Barbara Stelzner

.1177/0261927X10368836 Devlin , M.B. , & Billings , A.C. ( 2016 ). Examining the world’s game in the United States: Impact of nationalized qualities on fan identification and consumption of the 2014 FIFA World Cup . Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 60 ( 1 ), 40 – 60 . doi:10