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Ross Tucker, Vincent O. Onywera and Jordan Santos-Concejero

Purpose:

To investigate the ethnicity of Kenya’s most successful international runners, tracking their evolution over the period of their international emergence and current dominance.

Methods:

The authors analyzed male track distance events from 800m upwards from all the major global athletics championships from 1964 to 2013, and the annual Top-25 world marathon performances since 1990.

Results:

The percentage of top-25 marathon performances and medals won by Kenyan and Kalenjin runners have increased over time with Nandi subtribe outperforming the rest of the world outside Africa (r > .70, large effect). However, Europe, North America, Oceania, Asia, and South America decreased over time in top marathon performances and track medals won (r > .70, large effect). The tribe and subtribe distribution was different in the marathon than in the track: Maasais were more likely to feature in medals won in shorter track events than in the top 25 of the world marathon rankings (risk ratio [RR] = 9.67, very large effect). This was also the case for Marakwets (RR = 6.44, very large effect) and Pokots (RR = 4.83, large effect). On the other hand, Keiyos, Kikuyus, Kipsigis, Sabaots, and Tugens were more likely to succeed in the marathon than in shorter track events (RR > 2.0, moderate effect).

Conclusion:

These data emphasize that the previously documented emergence of African distance runners is primarily a Kenyan phenomenon, driven by the Kalenjin tribe and in particular the Nandi subtribe. This supports the complex interaction between genotype, phenotype, and socioeconomic factors driving the remarkable dominance of Kenyan distance runners.

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Niamh M. Murphy and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Large-scale, one-off sporting or physical activity (PA) events are often thought to impact population PA levels. This article reviews the evidence and explores the nature of the effect.

Methods:

A search of the published and grey literature was conducted to July 2005 using relevant databases, web sources, and personal contacts. Impacts are described at the individual, societal and community, and environmental levels.

Results:

Few quality evaluations have been conducted. While mass sporting events appear to influence PA-related infrastructure, there is scant evidence of impact on individual participation at the population level. There is some evidence that events promoting active transport can positively affect PA.

Conclusions:

The public health potential of major sporting and PA events is often cited, but evidence for public health benefit is lacking. An evaluation framework is proposed.

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Carolyn E. McEwen, Laura Hurd Clarke, Erica V. Bennett, Kimberley A. Dawson and Peter R.E. Crocker

processes in elite sport. The Summer Olympic Games are a unique worldwide event occurring every 4 years, and for many athletes they represent the pinnacle of sport achievement ( Gould & Maynard, 2009 ; Stambulova et al., 2012 ; Wylleman et al., 2012 ). Elite athletes often plan their careers around the

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Amanda Kastrinos, Rachel Damiani and Debbie Treise

Every 4 years the Olympic Games bring together millions of people from around the world to participate in a shared experience. The Games are unique in uniting individuals from all backgrounds and birth countries to sit in the same arena or similarly glue their eyes to the television, participating

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Christopher M. McLeod, Haozhou Pu and Joshua I. Newman

whole of 2008. In short, during August 2008 the air was the cleanest and the sky was the bluest it had been in Beijing’s recent history. August 2008 was also the month that Beijing hosted the twenty-ninth Summer Olympic Games. To manufacture this air quality achievement, the Beijing Organizing Committee

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Eilidh H.R. Macrae

Voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) provide the primary opportunities for organized community sport in the UK and thus hold the responsibility for delivering on mega-event sports participation legacies. This study presents findings from open-ended questionnaires and interviews conducted in two phases (Phase 1—Spring, 2013; Phase 2—Summer, 2015) with representatives from a sample (n = 39) of VSCs to understand their ability to deliver on the participation legacy goals of London 2012 and the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Thematic analysis of the data outlined three themes where support for VSCs should be placed when planning future mega-events: building VSC capacity, retaining members in the long-term, and promoting general visibility of the VSC throughout the event. Bid teams who hope to use mega-events as catalysts for sports participation increases should direct funding and guidance toward VSCs to ensure they have the tools, knowledge, and capacity to deliver on national sports participation ambitions.

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Erin E. Redihan

the Soviet Union at the Olympic Games and to influence the International Olympic Committee. 6 There was growing concern that American athletes were falling behind their Soviet peers in international competition. As such, the Johnson administration, which was the first to invite the Olympic team to

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Benjamin H. Nam, Sangback Nam, Adam Love, Takuya Hayakawa, Rachael C. Marshall and Kyung Su Jung

Among ethnic Koreans, marathon running has long been important, as it has promoted national cohesion and Korean identity during tumultuous times. The success of Korean runners in the international sporting arena began at the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, where, running under the Japanese flag

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Terry Orlick and John Partington

This study included 235 Canadian Olympic athletes who participated in the 1984 Olympic Games in Sarajevo and Los Angeles. Individual interviews were carried out with 75 athletes and a questionnaire was completed by another 160 to assess their mental readiness for the Olympic Games and factors related to mental readiness. Common elements of success were identified, as well as factors that interfered with optimal performance at the Olympic Games. Statistically significant links were found between Olympic performance outcome and certain mental skills.

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Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff

qualifying events for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. No interventions or modifications of training based on the observed TL data were made during the data collection period. Methodology Both internal and external TL variables were analyzed as TRIMP. Internal TL TRIMP for both OS and CS was the product of