Throughout the history of sport, men have played a leading role in its organization, function, purpose, and exposition (Hargreaves, 2000). Women’s sport participation has drastically risen over the past 40 years and ample new opportunities have emerged within the sport realm for women, which are attributed to a collection of incentives, but chiefly resulting from the passage of Title IX (Coakley, 2009). Women are allowed to participate in physically intense, aggressive, and violent sports, often referred to as power and performance sports (Coakley, 2014), however, the occurrence of this form of sport involvement appears to run counterintuitive to traditionally accepted societal norms. Consequently, the intent of this research was to explore how female athletes experience, interpret, accept, tolerate, and or resist the presumed contradictory role adopted through participation in power and performance sports. For the purpose of this study, existential phenomenological interviews were conducted that yielded in-depth personal accounts of the lived experience of 12 female athletes ranging in age from 21 to 50, representing a variety of power and performance sports (i.e., rugby, ice hockey, jiu-jitsu, kenpo, muay thai, kendo, boxing, and mixed martial arts). Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 381 meaning units that were further grouped into subthemes and major themes. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing four major dimensions that characterized these athletes’ experiences of power and performance sports: Physicality, Mentality, Opportunity, and Attraction & Alliance.
Stacia Ming, Duncan Simpson and Daniel Rosenberg
Brenda A. Riemer and Deborah L. Feltz
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stereotyped visual images (pictures) on the friendship status ranking of females in “gender-appropriate” and “gender-inappropriate” sports. The study employed a 2×2×3 (sex × sport × image) ANOVA between subjects design, with tennis and basketball being the “appropriate” and “inappropriate” sports chosen respectively. The visual image was manipulated by having a picture of a stereotypical feminine female versus a stereotypical androgynous female. The control group did not have a visual image. We hypothesized that image would interact with sport appropriateness such that the feminine image would enhance the friendship status of the hypothetical basketball player; whereas the androgynous image would lower the hypothetical tennis player’s status. A “sex-byimage” interaction as well as a “sex-by-sport” trend supported the hypothesis for males; males used the perceived femininity/androgyny stereotype to influence their decision about friendship status.
Over the last two decades, women’s active involvement in sport has increased. For example, since the 1972 passage of Title IX, participation has increased by over 600% for girls in interscholastic school programs (Boutilier & SanGiovanni, 1983). Despite an increase in the sport opportunities available to women, stereotypes about what is socially appropriate influence how females in sport are perceived. Gender-role stereotypes have been identified as some of the influencing factors in the perception of appropriate sports for males and females (Metheny, 1965) and in one’s social status (Coleman, 1961). Avariable which may enhance the perception of appropriate sports for males and females is the addition of a visual image. Duncan & Sayaovong (1990) have suggested that visual images have the ability to reinforce or contradict gender-role stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to determine how visual images may affect the perceived status of female high school athletes in “gender-appropriate” and “gender-inappropriate” sports.
trade), in the context of Title IX and intercollegiate sport. They note that the influence of neoliberalism in intercollegiate athletics has resulted in shift away from competitive, educational, and participatory sport to a commercially driven business. The chapter closes with a detailed discussion of
George B. Cunningham, Erin Buzuvis and Chris Mosier
address locker room inclusion. The three primary legal grounds that have been used to challenge the exclusion of transgender users from locker rooms and other intimate facilities like bathrooms are Title IX, the Constitution’s Equal Protection Clause, and state law. Title IX is federal law that prohibits
John J. Miller
a vital area to a sport manager. Chapter 8 deals with significant issues such as gender, religious, and racial discrimination. The topic of gender discrimination effectively discusses the genesis of Title IX as it applies to sport. Interestingly, the chapter cites how men’s teams have been the focus
Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin
positions with females ( Acosta & Carpenter, 2012 ). Passed in 1972, Title IX was intended to remedy sex discrimination within American educational institutions that receive federal funding. The effects of Title IX have been disparate between female participation in sport as athletes and as administrators
George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon
, systemic forms of bias, and the expectations of key constituents, among others. Title IX represents one of the most influential macro-level factors impacting women in coaching. As explained by Lopiano ( 2000 ): A federal antidiscrimination law, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, mandated
). Conversely, the story of Attar’s hijab is overshadowed by her empowered profile linked to Title IX, bootstraps narratives, women’s rights, and American feminism. Under the norms of neoliberal feminism from the global north, Attar is the exact “can do girl” needed to sell sport as a human right in Saudi
Nancy E. Spencer
representations of women athletes, Title IX and the governance of U.S. women’s sports, and sex testing in international competition. The historical detail is reminiscent of Cahn’s ( 1994 ) Coming on Strong and Festle’s ( 1996 ) Playing Nice . In my view, all three works are brilliantly written and well
Department despite information outlining the Title IX violations related to the implementation of the rules. Smith outlines the insularity of the university and the athletic administration that created the stage for these incidents as well as the continued silence of the president, athletic administrators