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Maea Hohepa, Grant Schofield, Gregory S. Kolt, Robert Scragg and Nick Garrett

Background:

Few studies have examined high school students’ physical activity habits using objective measures. The purpose of this study was to describe pedometer-determined habitual physical activity levels of youth.

Methods:

236 high school students (age 12–18 years) wore sealed pedometers for 5 consecutive days. Data were analyzed using generalizing estimating equations.

Results:

Mean steps/d (± SE) differed significantly by sex (males, 10,849 ± 381; females, 9652 ± 289), age (junior students [years 9–11], 11,079 ± 330; senior students [years 12 and 13], 9422 ± 334), time of week (weekday, 12,259 ± 287; weekend day, 8241 ± 329), and mode of transportation to and from school (walkers, 13,308 ± 483; car transit users, 10,986 ± 435). Only 14.5% of students achieved at least 10,000 steps on every day during the monitoring period.

Conclusion:

Daily step counts differed substantially by age, sex, time of week, and transportation mode to school.

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Christina A. Taylor and Joonkoo Yun

This study examined the psychometric properties of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS) for use with children with mental retardation (MR). Eleven children with MR were videotaped while participating in a university-based community outreach program. Actiwatch accelerometers were used as the criterion measure. Results indicated that SOFIT and CARS both demonstrated adequate levels of generalizability (ϕ= 0.98 and 0.75), but a low concurrent validity coefficient for SOFIT (r = .10) and a moderate level of validity coefficient for CARS (r = .61) were observed. CARS demonstrates stronger validity evidence than SOFIT, but it is important to have sufficient rater training before using CARS for measuring physical activity level of children with MR.

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Natascja A. Di Cristofaro, Nicole A. Proudfoot, Patricia Tucker and Brian W. Timmons

Young children’s activity and sedentary time were simultaneously measured via the Actical method (i.e., Actical accelerometer and specific cut-points) and the ActiGraph method (i.e., ActiGraph accelerometer and specific cut-points) at both 15-s and 60-s epochs to explore possible differences between these 2 measurement approaches. For 7 consecutive days, participants (n = 23) wore both the Actical and ActiGraph side-by-side on an elastic neoprene belt. Device-specific cut-points were applied. Paired sample t tests were conducted to determine the differences in participants’ daily average activity levels and sedentary time (min/h) measured by the 2 devices at 15-s and 60-s time sampling intervals. Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement between Actical and ActiGraph accelerometers. Regardless of epoch length, Actical accelerometers reported significantly higher rates of sedentary time (15 s: 42.7 min/h vs 33.5 min/h; 60 s: 39.4 min/h vs 27.1 min/h). ActiGraph accelerometers captured significantly higher rates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (15 s: 9.2 min/h vs 2.6 min/h; 60 s: 8.0 min/h vs 1.27 min/h) and total physical activity (15 s: 31.7 min/h vs 22.3 min/h; 60 s: = 39.4 min/h vs 25.2 min/h) in comparison with Actical accelerometers. These results highlight the present accelerometry-related issues with interpretation of datasets derived from different monitors.

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Jeff R. Crane, Patti J. Naylor, Ryan Cook and Viviene A. Temple

Background:

Perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between motor skill proficiency and physical activity among older children and adolescents. This study examined kindergarten children’s perceptions of physical competence as a mediator of the relationship between motor skill proficiency as a predictor variable and physical activity levels as the outcome variable; and also with physical activity as a predictor and motor skill proficiency as the outcome.

Methods:

Participants were 116 children (mean age = 5 years 7 months, 58% boys) from 10 schools. Motor skills were measured using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and physical activity was monitored through accelerometry. Perceptions of physical competence were measured using The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children, and the relationships between these variables were examined using a model of mediation.

Results:

The direct path between object control skills and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significant and object control skills predicted perceived physical competence. However, perceived competence did not mediate the relationship between object control skills and MVPA.

Conclusions:

The significant relationship between motor proficiency and perceptions of competence did not in turn influence kindergarten children’s participation in physical activity. These findings support concepts of developmental differences in the structure of the self-perception system.

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Nicola D. Ridgers, Stuart J. Fairclough and Gareth Stratton

Background:

Recess is an opportunity for children to engage in daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-month effects of a playground intervention on children’s moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) during morning and lunchtime recess.

Methods:

Four hundred and seventy children (232 boys, 238 girls) from 26 elementary schools participated in the study. Fifteen schools redesigned the playground environment using playground markings and physical structures. Eleven schools served as socioeconomic matched controls. Physical activity levels were quantified using heart rate and accelerometry at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months post-intervention. A 3-level (time, pupil, and school) multilevel analysis was used to determine the effects of the intervention across time on MVPA and VPA.

Results:

Positive yet nonsignificant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA during morning and lunchtime recess. Intervention children were more active during recess than control children. Interactions revealed that the intervention effect was stronger at 6 months than 12 months post-intervention.

Conclusions:

A playground markings and physical structures intervention had a positive effect on intervention children’s morning and lunchtime MVPA and VPA when assessed using heart rate and accelerometry, but this effect is strongest 6-months post-intervention and decreased between 6 months and 12 months.

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Genevieve Dunton, Vicki J. Ebin, Merav W. Efrat, Rafael Efrat, Christianne J. Lane and Scott Plunkett

Objective:

The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children’s after-school physical activity levels.

Methods:

An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity.

Results:

The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children’s rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up.

Conclusion:

The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

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Koren L. Fisher, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Joshua A. Lawson, Bruce A. Reeder, Nigel L. Ashworth, M. Suzanne Sheppard and Karen E. Chad

then summing the product for all 12 items. The scale ranges from 0 to 400 with a higher score indicative of a higher level of PA ( Washburn et al., 1993 ). Predictors of activity level Questions were asked regarding the types of services (housekeeping, meals, personal care, and/or nursing services) and

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Nicole K. Nathan, Rachel L. Sutherland, Kirsty Hope, Nicole J. McCarthy, Matthew Pettett, Ben Elton, Rebecca Jackson, Stewart G. Trost, Christophe Lecathelinais, Kathryn Reilly, John H. Wiggers, Alix Hall, Karen Gillham, Vanessa Herrmann and Luke Wolfenden

Francisco, the criterion of 100 minutes of PE per week for elementary students was recorded in only 20% of teachers’ schedules and occurred in only one of 20 school observations. 11 With such poor policy implementation, the potential impact that these policies may have on children’s activity levels, if

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Edgard Melo Keene von Koenig Soares, Guilherme E. Molina, Daniel Saint Martin, João Luís A. E. Sadat P. Leitão, Keila E. Fontana, Luiz F. Junqueira Jr., Timóteo Leandro de Araújo, Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Victor K. Matsudo and Luiz Guilherme Grossi Porto

, gender, and schooling, are associated with questionnaire-based PA level, different samples with broader characteristics would add value for our analysis proposal. Physical activity level was assessed by the IPAQ Portuguese short version. 13 In the São Paulo and the Belo Horizonte samples, the IPAQ was

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Wuber J.S. Soares, Alexandre D. Lopes, Eduardo Nogueira, Victor Candido, Suzana A. de Moraes and Monica R. Perracini

in kcal/day (EE) in quintiles Lowest = <1975.0 kcal/day Highest = ≥2,201.6 kcal/day ≥80 years ↑risk of falls at ↓activity level and ↑sedentary activity Confirmed interaction between PA and risk of falls Klenk et al. (2015 ), Germany ActiFE Ulm study 1,214 participants (57% females and 43% males, ≥65