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Laura A. Garvican, Kristal Hammond, Matthew C. Varley, Christopher J. Gore, Francois Billaut and Robert J. Aughey

Purpose:

This study investigated the decrement in running performance of elite soccer players competing at low altitude and time course for abatement of these decrements.

Methods:

Twenty elite youth soccer players had their activity profile, in a sea-level (SL) and 2 altitude (Alt, 1600 m, d 4, and d 6) matches, measured with a global positioning system. Measures expressed in meters per minute of match time were total distance, low- and high-velocity running (LoVR, 0.01–4.16 m/s; HiVR, 4.17–10.0 m/s), and frequency of maximal accelerations (>2.78 m/s2). The peak and subsequent stanza for each measure were identified and a transient fatigue index calculated. Mean heart rate (HR) during the final minute of a submaximal running task (5 min, 11 km/h) was recorded at SL and for 10 d at Alt. Differences were determined between SL and Alt using percentage change and effect-size (ES) statistic with 90% confidence intervals.

Results:

Mean HR almost certainly increased on d 1 (5.4%, ES 1.01 ± 0.35) and remained probably elevated on both d 2 (ES 0.42 ± 0.31) and d3 (ES 0.30 ± 0.25), returning to baseline at d 5. Total distance was almost certainly lower than SL (ES –0.76 ± 0.37) at d 4 and remained probably reduced on d 6 (ES –0.42 ± 0.36). HiVR probably decreased at d 4 vs SL (–0.47 ± 0.59), with no clear effect of altitude at d 6 (–0.08 ± 0.41). Transient fatigue in matches was evident at SL and Alt, with a possibly greater decrement at Alt.

Conclusion:

Despite some physiological adaptation, match running performance of youth soccer players is compromised for at least 6 d at low altitude.

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Charlie Bowen, Kristian Weaver, Nicola Relph and Matt Greig

metrics relating to distance and the derivatives including velocity have limited scope in a sport such as soccer where the activity profile is self-paced, and the player dictates the activity profile to a large extent. Embedded technologies such as the accelerometer, however, enable a relatively high

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Cesar Gallo-Salazar, Juan Del Coso, David Sanz-Rivas and Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez

Previous literature has focused on the match demands of 3-set matches, with studies observing matches lasting up to 3 hours but with a typical average time of 1.5 hours. 2 Moreover, different technologies have been used to record players’ running and activity profiles, with video recordings, 3 , 4 Hawk

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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

Invasive team sports such as soccer, 1 , 2 rugby league, 2 and Australian Football (AF) 2 , 3 are characterized by high-intensity (>19.8 km/h) intermittent activity profiles. Given the duration of activity (ie, 80–120 min) and high-intensity intermittent profiles, muscle glycogen is considered

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Matt Greig

extension–flexion repetitions, 3 repeated countermovement jumps, 4 and treadmill running 5 fail to adequately reflect the activity profile of soccer match-play, and therefore, interpretation in relation to injury epidemiology and etiology is limited. In developing an experimental approach to the problem

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Gregory J. Welk

physical activity behavior ( Saint-Maurice & Welk, 2014 ). The Youth Activity Profile (YAP) was developed with this type of calibration step in mind. Instead of trying to ask children to report specific details of their behavior, the emphasis was placed on developing items that capture their relative

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Inger Mechlenburg, Marianne Tjur and Kristian Overgaard

activity ( Owen, Healy, Matthews, & Dunstan, 2010 ; Smith et al., 2014 ). Thus, to assess the effects of sitting it is important to consider the total habitual physical activity profile. Questionnaires on daily activities performed may be difficult to complete ( Finger et al., 2015 ) and participants

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Montassar Tabben, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari and Ralph Beneke

Team ProEdition5.5, Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to analyze the footage frame-by-frame (interval = 0.016 s). To analyze the activity profile of senior elite karate combats, the official videos of the final combats were analyzed by a single karate expert (3rd DAN, several medals at World Cup and

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Montassar Tabben, Daniele Conte, Monoem Haddad and Karim Chamari

attack A video analysis software program (Dartfish Team ProEdition5.5; Dartfish, Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to analyze the footage frame by frame (interval = 0.016 s). 5 To analyze the activity profile of senior elite karate matches, the official videos of the final matches (ie, 4 min for males and

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Marni J. Simpson, David G. Jenkins, Aaron T. Scanlan and Vincent G. Kelly

activity profiles compared with field-based team sports. 3 Professionalism of women’s sport is on the rise worldwide. Netball is a predominately female sport that has seen the development of professional competitions, particularly in Australia. However, there is a significant gap in research that is