Three publications were selected based on the strength of the research questions, but also because they represent different research designs that are used with varying degrees of frequency in the pediatric literature. The first, a prospective, longitudinal cohort observation study from 7 to 16 years with girls and boys reports an intrinsic reduction in absolute resting energy expenditure after adjustment for lean mass, fat mass, and biological maturity. The authors suggest this could be related to evolutionary energy conservation, but may be problematic now that food energy availability is so abundant. The second focuses on the effect of acute exercise on neutrophil reactive oxygen species production and inflammatory markers in independent groups of healthy boys and men. The authors suggested the boys experienced a “sensitized” neutrophil response stimulated by the exercise bout compared with the men; moreover, the findings provided information necessary to design future trials in this important field. In the final study, a dose-response design was used to examine titrated doses of high intensity interval training on cardiometabolic outcomes in adolescent boys. While the authors were unable to identify a recognizable dose-response relationship, there are several design strengths in this study, which was probably underpowered.
Keith Tolfrey, Julia K. Zakrzewski-Fruer and James Smallcombe
Rachael C. Gliottoni, John R. Meyers, Sigurbjörn Á. Arngrímsson, Steven P. Broglio and Robert W. Motl
This experiment examined the effect of a moderate dose of caffeine on quadriceps muscle pain during a bout of high-intensity cycling in low- versus high-caffeine-consuming males. College-age men who were low (≤100 mg/day; n = 12) or high (≥400 mg/day; n = 13) habitual caffeine consumers ingested caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo in a counterbalanced order and 1 hr later completed 30 min of cycle ergometry at 75–77% of peak oxygen consumption. Perceptions of quadriceps muscle pain, as well as oxygen consumption, heart rate, and work rate, were recorded during both bouts of exercise. Caffeine ingestion resulted in a statistically significant and moderate reduction in quadriceps muscle-pain-intensity ratings during the 30-min bout of high-intensity cycle ergometry compared with placebo ingestion in both low (d = −0.42) and high (d = −0.55) caffeine consumers. The results suggest that caffeine ingestion is associated with a moderate hypoalgesic effect during high-intensity cycling in college-age men who are low or high habitual caffeine consumers, but future work should consider better defining and differentiating pain and effort when examining the effects of caffeine during acute exercise.
Amy S. Welch, Angie Hulley and Mark Beauchamp
To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program.
Désirée B. Maltais, Claire Gane, Sophie-Krystale Dufour, Dominik Wyss, Laurent J. Bouyer, Bradford J. McFadyen, Karl Zabjek, Jan Andrysek and Julien I.A. Voisin
Little is known about the effects of acute exercise on the cognitive functioning of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Selected cognitive functions were thus measured using a pediatric version of the Stroop test before and after maximal, locomotor based aerobic exercise in 16 independently ambulatory children (8 children with CP), 6–15 years old. Intense exercise had: 1) a significant, large, positive effect on reaction time (RT) for the CP group (preexercise: 892 ± 56.5 ms vs. postexercise: 798 ± 45.6 ms, p < .002, d = 1.87) with a trend for a similar but smaller response for the typically developing (TD) group (preexercise: 855 ± 56.5 ms vs. postexercise: 822 ± 45.6 ms, p < .08, d = 0.59), and 2) a significant, medium, negative effect on the interference effect for the CP group (preexercise: 4.5 ± 2.5%RT vs. postexercise: 13 ± 2.9%RT, p < .04, d = 0.77) with no significant effect for the TD group (preexercise: 7.2 ± 2.5%RT vs. postexercise: 6.9 ± 2.9%RT, p > .4, d = 0.03). Response accuracy was high in both groups pre- and postexercise (>96%). In conclusion, intense exercise impacts cognitive functioning in children with CP, both by increasing processing speed and decreasing executive function.
Alfredo Córdova, Antoni Sureda, María L. Albina, Victoria Linares, Montse Bellés and Domènec J. Sánchez
The aim was to determine the levels and activities of the oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine after a flat cyclist stage. Eight voluntary male professional trained-cyclists participated in the study. Exercise significantly increased erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet, and reticulocyte counts. The exercise induced significant increases in the erythrocyte activities of catalase (19.8%) and glutathione reductase (19.2%), while glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly (29.3%). Erythrocyte GSSG concentration was significantly increased after exercise (21.4%), whereas GSH was significantly diminished (20.4%). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels evidenced a significant decrease 3 h after finishing the stage (44.3%). Plasma malondialdehyde, GSH and GSSG levels significantly decreased after 3 hr recovery (26.8%, 48.6%, and 31.1%, respectively). The exercise significantly increased the F2-isoprostane concentration in urine from 359 ± 71 pg/mg creatinine to 686 ± 139 pg/mg creatinine. In conclusion, a flat cycling stage induced changes in oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of professional cyclists. Urine F2-isoprostane is a more useful biomarker for assessing the effects of acute exercise than the traditional malondialdehyde measurement.
Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Francisco Corbi, Keith George, Jinlei Nie, Luis Enrique Carranza-García and Joaquim Reverter-Masià
Purpose: The authors evaluated the impact of acute exercise and 24-hour recovery on serum concentration of cardiac troponins T and I (cTnT and cTnI) and N-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy children and adolescents. The authors also determined the proportion of participants exceeding the upper reference limits and acute myocardial infarction cutoff for each assay. Method: Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases were systematically searched up to November 2017. Studies were screened and quality-assessed; the data was systematically extracted and analyzed. Results: From 751 studies initially identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria for data extraction. All 3 biomarkers were increased significantly after exercise. A decrease from postexercise to 24 hours was noted in cTnT and cTnI, although this decrease was only statistically significant for cTnT. The upper reference limit was exceeded by 76% of participants for cTnT, a 51% for cTnI, and a 13% for NT-proBNP. Furthermore, the cutoff value for acute myocardial infarction was exceeded by 39% for cTnT and a 11% for cTnI. Postexercise peak values of cTnT were associated with duration and intensity (Q (3) = 28.3, P < .001) while NT-proBNP peak values were associated with duration (Q (2) = 11.9, P = .003). Conclusion: Exercise results in the appearance of elevated levels of cTnT, cTnI, and NT-proBNP in children and adolescents. Postexercise elevations of cTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with exercise duration and intensity.
Jonathan M. Peake
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is involved in a number of biochemical pathways that are important to exercise metabolism and the health of exercising individuals. This review reports the results of studies investigating the requirement for vitamin C with exercise on the basis of dietary vitamin C intakes, the response to supplementation and alterations in plasma, serum, and leukocyte ascorbic acid concentration following both acute exercise and regular training. The possible physiological significance of changes in ascorbic acid with exercise is also addressed. Exercise generally causes a transient increase in circulating ascorbic acid in the hours following exercise, but a decline below pre-exercise levels occurs in the days after prolonged exercise. These changes could be associated with increased exercise-induced oxidative stress. On the basis of alterations in the concentration of ascorbic acid within the blood, it remains unclear if regular exercise increases the metabolism of vitamin C. However, the similar dietary intakes and responses to supplementation between athletes and nonathletes suggest that regular exercise does not increase the requirement for vitamin C in athletes. Two novel hypotheses are put forward to explain recent findings of attenuated levels of cortisol postexercise following supplementation with high doses of vitamin C.
Christine M. Tallon, Ryan G. Simair, Alyssa V. Koziol, Philip N. Ainslie and Alison M. McManus
Purpose: To understand the extent different types of acute exercise influence cerebral blood flow during and following exercise in children. Methods: Eight children (7–11 y; 4 girls) completed 2 conditions: high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 6 × 1-min sprints at 90% watt maximum) and moderate-intensity steady-state exercise (MISS; 15 min at 44% watt maximum). Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV) and heart rate were assessed continuously. The partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide and mean arterial pressure were assessed at baseline and following exercise. Results: Percentage of maximum heart rate during HIIE was 82% (4%), compared with 69% (4%) during MISS. MCAV was increased above baseline in MISS after 75 seconds (5.8% [3.9%], P × .004) but was unchanged during HIIE. MCAV was reduced below baseline (−10.7% [4.1%], P × .004) during the sixth sprint of HIIE. In both conditions, MCAV remained below baseline postexercise, but returned to baseline values 30-minute postexercise (P < .001). A postexercise increase in mean arterial pressure was apparent following HIIE and MISS, and persisted 30-minute postexercise. Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide declined post HIIE (−3.4 mm Hg, P < .05), but not following MISS. Conclusion: These preliminary findings show HIIE and MISS elicit differing intracranial vascular responses; however, research is needed to elucidate the implications and underlying regulatory mechanisms of these responses.
Jaqueline P. Batista, Igor M. Mariano, Tállita C.F. Souza, Juliene G. Costa, Jéssica S. Giolo, Nádia C. Cheik, Foued S. Espindola, Sarah Everman and Guilherme M. Puga
The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic and salivary responses after mat Pilates, aerobics, resistance exercises, and control. A total of 16 normotensive postmenopausal women performed: Pilates, 10 floor exercises; aerobics, 35 min on a treadmill (60–70% of heart rate reserve); resistance exercises, 60% of one-repetition maximum; and control, no physical exercise. Blood pressure and heart rate variability were evaluated at rest and 60 min after the intervention. Saliva samples were collected at rest, immediately after, and 30 and 60 min after exercise for analysis of nitrite concentration and total proteins. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure area under the curve were lower (p < .05) after both aerobic and resistance exercises sessions but not after the Pilates session when compared with the control session. Nitrite concentrations in saliva were higher 60 min after the end of all exercise sessions. Heart rate variability was higher after the resistance exercise. Aerobic and resistance exercises were capable of decreasing arterial blood pressure after acute exercise.
Marcin Baranowski, Jan Górski, Barbara Klapcinska, Zbigniew Waskiewicz and Ewa Sadowska-Krepa
We have previously shown that acute exercise increases the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in plasma and ceramide in erythrocytes of untrained subjects. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of ultramarathon run on the plasma and erythrocyte levels of the following bioactive sphingolipids: S1P, sphinganine-1-phosphate (SA1P), sphingosine, sphinganine, and ceramide. Blood samples were collected from seven male amateur runners participating in a 48-hr ultramarathon race before the run, after 24 and 48 hr of running, and following 24 and 48 hr of recovery. The sphingolipids were quantified by means of HPLC. Sustained running for 48 hr resulted in a progressive decline in plasma S1P to a level significantly lower than at prerace, and then remained stable over the next 48 hr of recovery. In erythrocytes, S1P content was stable until 24 hr of recovery, then rose abruptly to reach peak values after 48 hr of recovery. The plasma level of SA1P decreased progressively during the competition and remained unchanged over the recovery. In erythrocytes, the level of SA1P increased after 24 hr running and normalized thereafter. The level of ceramide, both in plasma and erythrocytes, was not significantly affected by the ultraendurance run. We speculate that reduction in plasma level of S1P during and after the run reduces its biological actions and might be responsible for some negative side-effects of the ultraendurance effort.