The central concern of this paper is how an adapted physical education practicum and the journal writing of that experience affected the lives of the students involved. The paper uses as its resource material the fieldwork journals of physical education students who were involved in practicum experiences with people of varying abilities and disabilities. The stories in the journals disclose something of what it is like to come to terms with others and with oneself in the “adapted” teaching-learning adventure. These disclosures will be presented thematically, the themes describing a journey through an adapted physical education practicum. The thematic composite of this journey is based upon content, critical, and thematic analyses of the data, coupled with the experiences and insights of the student collaborators. The potential for these kinds of experiences in physical education and teacher education is discussed.
Paul Jansma and Paul Surburg
This paper focuses on competency guidelines related to adapted physical education Ph.D. professional preparation in the United States with an emphasis on educational models and different orientations applicable to doctoral professional preparation. Key literature and related information are provided on teacher reform, standards, and competencies, with an emphasis on adapted physical education. The method of development, refinement, validation, and endorsement of the doctoral competencies over the course of this 6-year project precedes the listing of the final 79 competencies across two generic areas (adapted physical educator, researcher) and four other competency areas (administrator, movement scientist, advocate, pedagogue). The paper concludes with a discussion of quality control, doctoral program commonality and diversity, future competency guideline refinement efforts, and postgraduation professional development.
Jana Sklenarikova, Martin Kudlacek, Ladislav Baloun and Janice Causgrove Dunn
The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activityfrom 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physicalactivity research in Europe.
C. Craig Stewart
This study investigated the effects of four practica situations on the attitudes of undergraduate students toward disabled individuals. Students enrolled in two undergraduate adapted physical education classes were studied during two academic quarters. They had the option of being involved in one of four practica situations. The attitudes of the students were measured with the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons scale. Interpretation of the statistical analyses revealed that, as a group, the adapted physical education students’ attitudes improved over a 10-week period and that certain practica experiences tended to affect attitudes more than others.
Jo E. Cowden and Carol C. Torrey
The ROADMAP (Role of Assessment Directed Movements, Actions, and Patterns) Model is presented, providing a plan of action for the adapted motor developmentalist (AMD) to assess the motor actions of young children. The emerging specialty area of the AMD requires new areas of proficiency, which are described in the ROADMAP Model. The model defines and describes inputs, processes, products, outputs, and outcomes as they relate to the process of assessment. The role of the adapted motor developmentalist as a key member in the inter- or transdisciplinary assessment process is discussed. Additionally, selected motor assessment instruments are suggested for use by the AMD.
Patricia L. Krebs and Martin E. Block
The mission of education is to prepare all students with and without disabilities for adult life in the community. Recent amendments to Public Law 94-142 now require transition services, which promote movement from school to postschool activities, for all students with disabilities to begin as early as age 14 and to be included in the student’s IEP. Most special education programs provide vocational, domestic, and community independent living skills training. However, the same cannot be said for lifelong sport and fitness training. A life-skills model for teaching sport and fitness skills that are chronologically age appropriate, functional, and community based is preferred to the traditional developmental approach for teaching adapted physical education. The life-skills model for teaching adapted physical education changes the setting–from school sport facilities to community sport and recreation facilities–in which adapted physical education classes are conducted. It also expands the role of the adapted physical educator from direct service provider to include transition team member, consultant to regular physical education and community sport and recreation agencies, trainer of support personnel, and environmental analyst.
Claudine Sherrill and Nancy Megginson
The purpose was to develop and field test a comprehensive needs assessment instrument for use in determining and prioritizing local school district adapted physical education needs. The resulting Survey of Adapted Physical Education Needs (SAPEN) was comprised of 50 items, encompassing five areas: (a) significance of physical education, (b) assessment, placement, and individualized educational programming, (c) instruction and programming, (d) personnel, and (e) other. Items were to be rated on two, 6-point Likert-type scales, relating respectively to the extent to which each adapted physical education condition now exists and should exist in one’s school district. Procedures established by Schipper and Wilson (1975) were followed in determining needs and subsequently designating them as first (most urgent), second, and third priorities to be acted upon by school district personnel. Content validity of SAPEN was established by five nationally known adapted physical education experts. Test-retest and internal reliability coefficients were determined by the Spearman Rank Correlation and Alpha Coefficient techniques respectively. Data analysis and cooperative planning follow-up procedures were field tested in a selected school district with SAPENs returned by 37 administrators, 48 physical educators, 55 special educators, and 12 parents.
Deborah J. Buswell, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Bettye Myers
The purpose was to examine perspectives on publication of highly productive women adapted physical activity scholars. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 women from three countries, and data were analyzed utilizing constant comparison methodology. Profiles of two groups, significantly different on publication productivity, emerged and were named highest high producers (HHP) and other high producers (OHP). Similarities between the two groups included affective domain qualities, facilitating factors, and overcoming barriers. Differences were mainly in degree of self-determination, prioritization of writing relative to significant others, collaboration, and collegiality. Based on thematic analysis of interview data, we posited the following: high publication productivity of women adapted physical activity professionals is associated with internal motivation to write, which is enhanced by positive interactions with other professionals, supportive home environments, and supportive work environments.
Allen W. Burton
The possibility that movement problems experienced by children may be at least partially accounted for by perceptual deficits needs to be considered by adapted physical educators. The ecological approach to perception, emphasizing the person-environment relationship, provides a useful conceptual foundation for defining perceptual deficits in relation to movement, for assessing perceptual deficits, and for designing and implementing remedial programs. A starting point for acknowledging the interaction of perception and movement in adapted physical education programs might be to strive to include activities that are purposeful in nature whenever possible. The next step, for students who may be suspected of having perceptual deficits, might be to help the children become better attuned to the affordances in their environment.
Wendy M. Holmes and Madeleine E. Hackney
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of 16 individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) partaking in an adapted tango class and the perceived impact on participation and quality of life (QOL). The Ecology of Human Performance and the International Classification of Function were the theoretical frameworks for the study. Data collection involved focus groups conducted during the intervention and at a follow-up six months later. Data analysis followed inductive thematic analysis techniques. The themes addressed living with PD, the class structure and experiences, the participants’ expectations for the class, and the multiple effects experienced by participants at both time periods. The results suggest that adapted tango, when offered in a structured environment with skilled instruction, may improve skills for participation in daily activities and contribute to increased QOL for persons with PD.