Graduates from four adapted physical education doctoral programs (1980-1999) within the United States were surveyed to determine their perceptions on the extent to which they attained published competencies in the areas of research and adapted physical education. A survey was mailed to 109 doctoral program graduates. A total of 99 surveys (91%) were usable for data analysis. Competency data were analyzed separately across two 10-year time periods (1980-1989; 1990-1999). Respondents’ perceptions improved significantly in cumulative research competency scores from the first to the second time period. Responses for adapted physical education competencies were similar across both time periods. Follow-up analyses on responses for each of the separate 18 research and 20 adapted physical education competency statements resulted in significant improvement from 1980-1989 to 1990-1999 for eight research competencies and one adapted physical education competency. Results have implications for the future of adapted physical education doctoral training in the United States and beyond.
David L. Porretta, Paul R. Surburg and Paul Jansma
Bartosz Gula and Markus Raab
In our comment on Koehler and Conley’s (2003) findings on the “hot hand” belief, we want to emphasize the different conclusions that can be drawn from their results by applying the concept of ecological rationality. The choice of environmental contexts and structures imposes constraints on possible interpretations of the results obtained. Differentiating between the cognitive and behavioral levels of the phenomenon seems analytically useful, particularly if practical recommendations to professionals are to be made. The implications of Koehler and Conley’s data, new evidence, and the relationship between the perceived streaks of players and their base rates are discussed with the aim of developing empirically founded recommendations to professionals in sports, especially in real game situations.
Jeffrey A. McCubbin and John M. Dunn
This study examined the need for the preparation of leadership personnel in the area of adapted physical education within the USA. Data were collected on the advertised positions in the Chronicle of Higher Education between 1991-1998 compared to the numbers of personnel prepared during a previous, similar time period (1981-1989). During the 1991-1998 time period, 87 professionals completed dissertations related to adapted physical education, while 173 positions in institutions of higher education were advertised for professionals with expertise in adapted physical education. These data indicate that there continues to be a significant need for additional doctoral personnel trained in adapted physical education for college or university teaching positions in the United States. Evidence of a need for diversified, well-qualified training programs is offered. In addition, the authors suggest promising alternate approaches to assist in meeting the needs of qualified personnel in adapted physical education for leadership positions.
Jo E. Cowden and Bobby L. Eason
PL 99-457 and PL 101-176 have presented a new challenge for adapted physical education. Federal legislation has provided financial incentive for states to increase the intensity and duration of early intervention programs for the infant/toddler/preschool child with disabilities (ITPCD). The present article proposes a conceptual framework for a new subfield, pediatric adapted physical education (PAPE). The origins and essence of federal legislation affecting infants, toddlers, and preschoolers is explained. Because the legislation requires a multi-agency/multidisciplined approach, the role of adapted physical education within the larger context is explained, as is the professional preparation of practitioners of the new subfield. Finally, one state’s initiative is explained to serve as an action plan for other adapted physical education leaders.
Yeshayahu Hutzler and Devora Hellerstein
Paul Jansma and Paul Surburg
This paper focuses on competency guidelines related to adapted physical education Ph.D. professional preparation in the United States with an emphasis on educational models and different orientations applicable to doctoral professional preparation. Key literature and related information are provided on teacher reform, standards, and competencies, with an emphasis on adapted physical education. The method of development, refinement, validation, and endorsement of the doctoral competencies over the course of this 6-year project precedes the listing of the final 79 competencies across two generic areas (adapted physical educator, researcher) and four other competency areas (administrator, movement scientist, advocate, pedagogue). The paper concludes with a discussion of quality control, doctoral program commonality and diversity, future competency guideline refinement efforts, and postgraduation professional development.
The central concern of this paper is how an adapted physical education practicum and the journal writing of that experience affected the lives of the students involved. The paper uses as its resource material the fieldwork journals of physical education students who were involved in practicum experiences with people of varying abilities and disabilities. The stories in the journals disclose something of what it is like to come to terms with others and with oneself in the “adapted” teaching-learning adventure. These disclosures will be presented thematically, the themes describing a journey through an adapted physical education practicum. The thematic composite of this journey is based upon content, critical, and thematic analyses of the data, coupled with the experiences and insights of the student collaborators. The potential for these kinds of experiences in physical education and teacher education is discussed.
Jana Sklenarikova, Martin Kudlacek, Ladislav Baloun and Janice Causgrove Dunn
The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activityfrom 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physicalactivity research in Europe.
C. Craig Stewart
This study investigated the effects of four practica situations on the attitudes of undergraduate students toward disabled individuals. Students enrolled in two undergraduate adapted physical education classes were studied during two academic quarters. They had the option of being involved in one of four practica situations. The attitudes of the students were measured with the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons scale. Interpretation of the statistical analyses revealed that, as a group, the adapted physical education students’ attitudes improved over a 10-week period and that certain practica experiences tended to affect attitudes more than others.
Jo E. Cowden and Carol C. Torrey
The ROADMAP (Role of Assessment Directed Movements, Actions, and Patterns) Model is presented, providing a plan of action for the adapted motor developmentalist (AMD) to assess the motor actions of young children. The emerging specialty area of the AMD requires new areas of proficiency, which are described in the ROADMAP Model. The model defines and describes inputs, processes, products, outputs, and outcomes as they relate to the process of assessment. The role of the adapted motor developmentalist as a key member in the inter- or transdisciplinary assessment process is discussed. Additionally, selected motor assessment instruments are suggested for use by the AMD.