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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

not only affect the cardiopulmonary system: acute hypoxia negatively affects postural stability, balance ability, motor skills, and reaction time compared with those at sea level. 5 , 11 – 13 One underlying mechanism could be reduced cerebral oxygenation, leading to decreased balance performance. 12

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

behavioral preparation to compete, and also being in a state to compete as a team member. Testosterone, a steroid hormone from the androgen group, may affect mood; behavior; neuromuscular expression of speed, power, and strength (SPS); and protein metabolism. 2 – 4 Specifically, higher concentrations of

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

RED-S model lists as “metabolic,” “endocrine,” “menstrual function,” and “bone health” consequences ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). While it is well accepted that low EA affects reproductive hormones, resulting in menstrual dysfunction, it is important to clarify what is and is not known about other

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

accuracy, tennis serving, and so on ( Williams & Rollo, 2015 ) are not “pure cognitive” measurements, they are useful for the sport setting. Dehydration The effect of hydration status on the performance of various exercise tasks has been studied extensively, and hydration status can also affect the brain

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

aging-associated cognitive decline ( Letenneur et al., 2007 ). For many years, benefits were attributed to the anthocyanins scavenging free radicals by B-ring hydroxyl groups and conjugated double bonds. However, anthocyanins also affect signaling pathways ( Qin & Anderson, 2012 ), particularly the

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Stephen D. Mellalieu, Sheldon Hanton and Graham Jones

The purpose of this study was to extend the work of Jones and Hanton (2001) by examining differences in affective states of performers who reported facilitating or debilitating interpretations of symptoms associated with precompetitive anxiety. Competitive athletes (N = 229) completed state and trait versions of the CSAI-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990), including intensity and direction subscales (Jones & Swain, 1992) and an exploratory measure of precompetitive affective responses in preparation and competition. “Facilitators” reported significantly greater positive labeling of affective experiences than “debilitators,” while cognitive interpretations of symptoms were reported to change with regard to preparation for and actual performance. The findings further support the need to examine the labeling and measurement of precompetitive affective states.

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

mechanical properties of AT systems. 3 , 11 For that reason, we hypothesized that the mechanical differences between NG and AT would affect the physical patterns of players during the SSP, but not their physiological responses. Methods Subjects A total of 16 amateur soccer players (22.17 [3.43] y; 177.12 [5

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Phillip Bellinger, Blayne Arnold and Clare Minahan

, and zone 3 >LT2/VT2). There is strong evidence from experimental studies 3 – 5 , 13 suggesting that the TID adopted by an athlete greatly affects the resultant performance and physiological adaptations. Furthermore, elite athletes aim to periodize their TID throughout different training phases within

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Lara A. Carlson, Kaylee M. Pobocik, Michael A. Lawrence, Daniel A. Brazeau and Alexander J. Koch

, metabolism, inflammation, and immunity, which can ultimately negatively affect athletic performance. 2 , 3 Exercise is generally thought to be a nonpharmacological behavior that promotes sleep, 4 possibly via hyperthermia. 5 Research regarding exercise’s effect on melatonin release is limited. 6 , 7

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Craig Pickering and Jozo Grgic

caffeine ingestion are indicative of an effect, although this did not reach statistical significance. Similar results have been reported by Rodrigues et al. ( 1990 ). In this study, ingestion of 5 mg/kg caffeine did not affect total cycling time to exhaustion; however, this study also included a small