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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

may not provide identical protection against disease. 3 Similarly, more functionally based components of fitness, such as muscular agility, could have distinct physiological consequences. Young people constitute a first line of primordial prevention of noncommunicable diseases as a physically active

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Koren L. Fisher, Bruce A. Reeder, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Nigel L. Ashworth, Punam Pahwa, Nazmi Sari, M. Suzanne Sheppard, Christopher A. Shields and Karen E. Chad

), upper body (UB) strength (arm curls), lower body (LB) and UB flexibility (sit-and-reach and back scratch), and dynamic agility (timed up and go test) ( Rikli & Jones, 1999 , 2013 ). The SFT was developed for use in adults aged 60 years and older and has been shown to have acceptable criterion validity

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

stretching) Resistance training (T, H)  - bench and shoulder press  - squat and leg press  - power clean and dead lift  1–2 weeks: 6–8 reps of 85% 1RM  3–4 weeks: 10–12 reps of 80% 1RM Afternoon (3:00–5:00 p.m.) Conditioning training  - dynamic stretching  - speed and agility training  - plyometric training

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Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, María del Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo Palacios, Antoni Sureda, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Josep Antoni Tur Marí and Marcela González-Gross

multicomponent battery of PF test validated for an older population 11 and validated as reference ranges for Spanish older adults proposed by Pedrero-Chamizo et al. 12 Lower body strength by the chair stand test, agility/dynamic balance by the 8-foot up-and-go test, aerobic endurance by the 6-minute walk test

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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

measures below Strength: arm curl—AE: sig. greater at end of training and 4-wk post, but decreasing; at 6-wk post, back to baseline Strength: chair stand—AE: sig. greater at end of training and at each post, but declining back toward baseline Agility: 8-ft up and go—AE: sig. decrease in time at end of

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Cody R. Smith, Cory L. Butts, J.D. Adams, Matthew A. Tucker, Nicole E. Moyen, Matthew S. Ganio and Brendon P. McDermott

-10-5 pro-agility drill and 1500-m run), and 15 minutes of additional cooling (treatment 2, T 2 ) with the same treatment as T 1 . The 2 trials began within an hour of one another and were separated by 14 days, and participants completed 1 trial using HEK for T 1 and T 2 , and 1 control (CON) trial without

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Christopher Rosimus

A squash player’s ability to perform high-intensity variable movements is a key determinant of success at the elite level ( Wilkinson et al., 2012 ). The body composition of a squash player may affect performance as carrying excessive body fat may increase injury risk and impair agility and speed

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Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabene, Senda Sammoud, Olaf Prieske, Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Ali Nejmaoui and Urs Granacher

assessment of proxies of muscle power (ie, CMJ, standing long jump [SLJ]), speed (ie, 5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint test); CoD (ie, Illinois change of direction test [ICoDT]; modified 505 agility test); and kicking-distance test were conducted. All tests were scheduled at least 48 hours after players’ most recent

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Gillian K. Myburgh, Sean P. Cumming, Manuel Coelho E. Silva, Karl Cooke and Robert M. Malina


To evaluate relationships among skeletal maturity, body size, and functional capacities of elite junior tennis players.


Participants were 88 elite British Junior tennis players (44 male; 44 female), 8–16 years of age (12.4 } 1.9 years). Skeletal age estimated maturty. Anthropometry, grip strength, countermovement jump, squat jump, forehand agility, backhand agility, Yo-Yo, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprints were measured. Comparative analysis for each sex was performed, relating advanced maturers (Male: 15; Female: 29) to a combination of on-time and late maturers (Male: 29; Female: 31). ANCOVAs were used to determine absolute differences between male and female players and between the 2 maturity subgroups, with chronological age as the covariate.


Advanced maturity afforded male players advantages in absolute measures of grip strength, speed, upper and lower body power but not in acceleration, agility or aerobic endurance. Male players were significantly taller than females in the U13-U16 age group. Advanced maturity in female players afforded advantages in absolute measures of grip strength, agility and overhead power, but not in backhand agility, aerobic endurance or squat jump power.


It is important that talent identification protocols consider the maturity of youth athletes to more satisfactorily address athletic potential rather than transient physical capabilities.

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Kevin Currell, Steve Conway and Asker E. Jeukendrup

The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a new test of soccer performance and evaluate the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) on soccer performance. Eleven university footballers were recruited and underwent 3 trials in a randomized order. Two of the trials involved ingesting a placebo beverage, and the other, a 7.5% maltodextrin solution. The protocol comprised a series of ten 6-min exercise blocks on an outdoor Astroturf pitch, separated by the performance of 2 of the 4 soccer-specific tests, making the protocol 90 min in duration. The intensity of the exercise was designed to be similar to the typical activity pattern during soccer match play. Participants performed skill tests of dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting throughout the protocol. The coefficients of variation for dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting were 2.2%, 1.2%, 7.0%, and 2.8%, respectively. The mean combined placebo scores were 42.4 ± 2.7 s, 43.1 ± 3.7 s, 210 ± 34 cm, and 212 ± 17 points for agility, dribbling, heading, and kicking, respectively. CHO ingestion led to a combined agility time of 41.5 ± 0.8 s, for dribbling 41.7 ± 3.5 s, 213 ± 11 cm for heading, and 220 ± 5 points for kicking accuracy. There was a significant improvement in performance for dribbling, agility, and shooting (p < .05) when CHO was ingested compared with placebo. In conclusion, the protocol is a reliable test of soccer performance, and ingesting CHO leads to an improvement in soccer performance.