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Georgia Cervin

’s participation to the concept of amateurism. 2 The abolition of amateurism led to an economic development through the pursuit of commercialization, and sports organizations pursued athlete welfare primarily to alleviate possible concerns from sponsors. Indeed, financial interests tie these three themes together

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Udi Carmi and Orr Levental

material benefits. 98 These changes in Israeli society affected diverse fields of endeavor, including sports. The ethos of amateurism that had characterized sports during the pre-state Yishuv period and the first years of statehood slowly dissipated. Sports began to shift from amateur to semi

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Bram Constandt, Els De Waegeneer and Annick Willem

Although media reports often seem to indicate that most ethical issues in soccer relate to the sport’s professional branch, recent examples illustrate that unethical behavior also expresses itself strongly on- and off-the-field in nonprofessional (amateur) soccer. For example, several sources

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Jeroen de Bruijn, Henk van der Worp, Mark Korte, Astrid de Vries, Rick Nijland and Michel Brink

Soccer and injury are inseparably linked together. A professional soccer player sustains on average 2 injuries every season, thereby missing 37 days each season (ie, about 12%). 1 We can also find high injury rates in amateur soccer. In Dutch amateur soccer, 60.1 percent of 274 players got injured

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Michael Girdwood, Liam West, David Connell and Peter Brukner

previously unreported case of a contact-related strain of QF, OE, and inferior gemellus in an amateur ARF athlete. Case Report A male amateur Australian rules footballer (age: 21 y; height: 178 cm; weight: 74 kg) was injured during match play after being tackled and slung into the ground (informed consent

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Sophie Speariett and Ross Armstrong

; with lower back injuries highly prevalent among both amateur and professional golfers. 54 , 56 – 59 Therefore, there is a need to balance potential performance benefits against injury risk. GSFMS Element Score and Golf Performance Variables The finding of a negative correlation between torso rotation

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

sensitivity indicated the ability of a measure to detect small but important changes in performance. 7 Methods Subjects Thirteen male amateur community-standard pace bowlers (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 5.6 y, weight 80.2 ± 11.9 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.07 m) from the Ballarat Cricket Association (A- and B-grade standard

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Jing Liao, Yung-Jen Yang and Dong (Roman) Xu

, playing Mahjong, attending educational courses), which may offset the health benefits of exercising. 33 Our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the cognitive domain-specific associations with multiyear square dancing among a group of older amateur dancers and their matched nondancing comparisons

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Marvin Washington and Marc J. Ventresca

The prominence of collegiate athletics in amateur athletics is a historically specific outcome. Research in institutional theory is extended by developing an institutional-conflict-based approach to studying institutional changes of U.S. collegiate athletics. Available secondary sources and extensive original data demonstrate how the NCAA came to dominate the governance structure of U.S. amateur basketball. Discourse about the NCAA came to represent the dominant discourse in amateur basketball, and colleges and universities eliminated the noncolleges and nonuniversities from their play schedules. The NCAA developed a set of institutional strategies aimed at increasing its power in U.S. basketball. An institutional-conflict-based approach is useful for analyzing changes in the institutional structure of sports and demonstrates how governance systems and institutional conflicts impact organizational actions. Sport policy makers and managers should consider the historical context and institutional environment of their sport when making decisions.

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Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen

This article focuses on the dominant meanings given by coaches and managers to “performance” in Dutch (amateur) sport clubs and how such meanings contribute to organizational processes related to (the intersection of) gender and race/ethnicity. We use the results of six studies conducted in (amateur) sport organizations in the Netherlands for this discussion/exploration. We argue that the relatively slow increase in the number of women and ethnic minorities in leadership positions can in part be explained by the dominant meanings given to “performance.” We also show how the salience of the intersection between gender and race/ethnicity is situation-specific.