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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier and Celine Scola

several possible explanations that are not mutually exclusive. First, it suggests that the infants were aroused, as they moved their heads, and sometimes also their arms and legs ( Thelen, 1979 ). This general motor activity certainly also helped them to communicate with their partner to express

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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Angela Renton, Norman Ng and William von Hippel

arousal and eustress have been found to enhance productivity, 16 and this is consistent with experimental data showing that sit–stand desks improve heart rate variability and sympathetic nerve activity. 17 Equally, in a recent extensive review on the effects of acute social stressors on job performance

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Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens and Fred Paas

have been proposed to account for the effects of exercise on cognitive control, including general arousal, 33 increase in cerebral blood flow, 34 neuronal proliferation, and cell survival. 35 Within the domain of cognitive control lies 3 interrelated foundational components: inhibition, working

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Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets and Rosa Angulo-Barroso

upregulating effect of exercise intensity on arousal level, which seems to follow an inverted-U pattern ( McMorris & Hale, 2012 ). According to this pattern, low-intensity exercise may have little to no effect on cognitive performance, moderate-intensity exercise would induce the greatest benefits, and

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Linda Paschen, Tim Lehmann, Miriam Kehne and Jochen Baumeister

acute physical exercises with high cognitive demands incorporating complex motor tasks, participation in group activities and sports games may include additional stimuli among an increased state of physiological arousal to improve EF ( 3 , 11 , 33 , 37 ). The execution of complex motor tasks activates

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

reader), and lactate (Sigma colorimetric assay, Beckman Spectrophotometer) concentrations were measured in duplicate. Two psychological affect scales were administered at the first four blood draws: Feeling Scale (−5 [very bad] to +5 [very good]; Hardy & Rejeski, 1989 ) and Felt Arousal Scale (1 [low

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield and Juan M. Murias

-minute increments during the 30-minute constant-load trials and the FTP 20 test. Psychological measures including the feeling scale (FS) for measures of “affect” and the felt arousal scale (FAS) for “arousal” level were administered before and after each testing session, while a rating of perceived

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Sanaz Nosrat, James W. Whitworth, Nicholas J. SantaBarbara, Shira I. Dunsiger and Joseph T. Ciccolo

was measured with the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS; Svebak & Murgatroyd, 1985 ). FAS is a single-item 6-point scale ranging from 1 to 6 with two anchors, including low arousal at 1 and high arousal at 6. Changes in moment-to-moment psychological distress during exercise were measured with the 0

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Jo Welsman

Rowland. In the very first volume, Tom alluded to the strength of emotion aroused by debates of the pros and cons of mass physical fitness testing of children and youth, encouraged active and open debate ( 16 ), and subsequently advised us that “the horse is dead; let’s dismount” ( 18 ). Exeter

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Guillaume R. Coudevylle, Shelly Ruart, Olivier Hue and Stephane Sinnapah

cognitive and motivational functions of imagery. Mentally rehearsing race plans and strategies of play (cognitive general imagery [CG]) or skills (cognitive specific imagery [CS]) are proposed to be the two cognitive functions of sport imagery. Imagining the arousal and anxiety associated with performing