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K. Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin, Chantal Levesque-Bristol and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship

The constructs of role stressors, burnout, and resilience have been the topic of numerous research studies in physical education and education more generally. Specific to physical education, much effort has been devoted to the study of teacher/coach role conflict. However, no prior studies have examined how role stressors, burnout, and resilience experienced by teacher/coaches differ from what is experienced by noncoaching teachers. Using role theory as a guiding framework, this study sought to examine differences in role stressors, burnout, and resilience among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers from core (e.g., mathematics, language arts) and noncore (e.g., physical education, music) subjects. Analyses were conducted using 2 × 2 (coaching status × subject affiliation) Factorial ANOVAs. While some group differences are highlighted, overall the results suggest that there are more similarities than differences among teacher/coaches and noncoaching teachers. These findings suggest that it is not safe to assume that dual role teacher/coaches will always experience more role stress and burnout than noncoaching teachers. Additional research is needed to more fully understand the implications of being a dual role teacher/coach.

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Stacia Ming, Duncan Simpson and Daniel Rosenberg

Throughout the history of sport, men have played a leading role in its organization, function, purpose, and exposition (Hargreaves, 2000). Women’s sport participation has drastically risen over the past 40 years and ample new opportunities have emerged within the sport realm for women, which are attributed to a collection of incentives, but chiefly resulting from the passage of Title IX (Coakley, 2009). Women are allowed to participate in physically intense, aggressive, and violent sports, often referred to as power and performance sports (Coakley, 2014), however, the occurrence of this form of sport involvement appears to run counterintuitive to traditionally accepted societal norms. Consequently, the intent of this research was to explore how female athletes experience, interpret, accept, tolerate, and or resist the presumed contradictory role adopted through participation in power and performance sports. For the purpose of this study, existential phenomenological interviews were conducted that yielded in-depth personal accounts of the lived experience of 12 female athletes ranging in age from 21 to 50, representing a variety of power and performance sports (i.e., rugby, ice hockey, jiu-jitsu, kenpo, muay thai, kendo, boxing, and mixed martial arts). Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 381 meaning units that were further grouped into subthemes and major themes. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing four major dimensions that characterized these athletes’ experiences of power and performance sports: Physicality, Mentality, Opportunity, and Attraction & Alliance.

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Laura Capranica and Mindy L. Millard-Stafford

A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and feld, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psycho-physiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

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Shana Harrington, Corinne Meisel and Angela Tate

Context:

The prevalence of shoulder pain in the competitive swimming population has been reported to be as high as 91%. Female collegiate swimmers have a reported shoulder-injury rate 3 times greater than their male counterparts. There has been little information on how to best prevent shoulder pain in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine if differences exist in shoulder range of motion, upper-extremity strength, core endurance, and pectoralis minor length in NCAA Division I female swimmers with and without shoulder pain and disability.

Methods:

NCAA Division I females (N = 37) currently swimming completed a brief survey that included the pain subscale of the Penn Shoulder Score (PSS) and the sports/performing arts module of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Outcome Measure. Passive range of motion for shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) at 90° abduction was measured using a digital inclinometer. Strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer for scapular depression and adduction, scapular adduction, IR, and ER. Core endurance was assessed using the side-bridge and prone-bridge tests. Pectoralis minor muscle length was assessed in both a resting and a stretched position using the PALM palpation meter. All measures were taken on the dominant and nondominant arms.

Results:

Participants were classified as positive for pain and disability if the following 2 criteria were met: The DASH sports module score was >6/20 points and the PSS strenuous pain score was ≥4/10. If these criteria were not met, participants were classified as negative for pain and disability. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups on the dominant side for pectoralis muscle length at rest (P = .003) and stretch (P = .029).

Conclusions:

The results provide preliminary evidence regarding an association between a decrease in pectoralis minor length and shoulder pain and disability in Division I female swimmers.

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

Marching artists are a unique group of athletes that require adequate nutrition to maintain optimal performance. Approximately 27,000 people participate in the marching arts in the United States ( Beckett et al., 2015 ). More than 5,000 members participate annually in Drum Corps International (DCI

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Sharyn G. Davies and Antje Deckert

mixed martial arts (MMA), signed its first woman competitor, Ronda Rousey. Also in 2012, the Olympic committee permitted women to compete in competitive boxing for the first time, although in a limited capacity ( Tjønndal, 2017 ). These two inclusions brought fighting women to world attention, attention

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Dean Dudley, John Cairney and Jackie Goodway

the circus arts as intervention medium ( Kriellaars et al., 2019 ) to explore the development of physical literacy in schools. Our first article by John Cairney and colleagues is a comprehensive review into the origins of the physical literacy construct. The authors find writings referencing the

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increasing focus on women’s participation in martial arts and combat sports in research. It is no surprise that scholars have discussed women’s participation in these traditionally masculine sports and have challenged the concepts of what it means to be “feminine.” The purpose of this study was to explore

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Geraldine Naughton, David Greene, Daniel Courteix and Adam Baxter-Jones

exposure to martial arts training ( 7 ). Results vary; perhaps reigniting the debates on the importance of impact, exposure, and frequency of stimuli in discriminating among adaptive, transient, and optimal responses of bone in young populations. In this special issue of Pediatric Exercise Science , bone

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Jose Morales, Carla Ubasart, Mónica Solana-Tramunt, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis-Millán González, David Fukuda and Emerson Franchini

balance, and success in both grappling and striking combat sports rely on superior RT. In fact, there is evidence that the interval between the official weigh-in and the beginning of competition is not long enough to guarantee full recovery, as 39% of mixed martial arts athletes still exhibit serious