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Reza Abdollahipour, Ludvík Valtr and Gabriele Wulf

, autonomy support) and one is related to the performer’s focus of attention (external focus). Each factor independently has been shown to enhance the performance and learning of various types of motor skills (e.g.,  Lewthwaite, Chiviacowsky, Drews, & Wulf, 2015 ; Stoate, Wulf, & Lewthwaite, 2012 ; Wulf

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

-lasting exercise adherence are yet to be determined ( Hagger, & Chatzisarantis, 2016 ). Literature has highlighted the role of autonomy support, which is a set of intentional strategies to support individuals’ participation due to inherent interest instead of external control, in facilitating individuals

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

observed between 30 and 60 minutes of recovery when PEH is usually observed, 3 , 12 which need to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intentional hydration before and after exercise on PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms. The hypotheses were

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Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells and Mi Ryoung Chung

leadership’s role in facilitating followers’ needs satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), which supports employee performance and therefore enhances long-term effectiveness of an organization ( Chiniara & Bentein, 2016 ). As outlined previously, many SDP organizations struggle to demonstrate

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

individual and contextual motivational conditions. Contextual Conditions: Perceived Motivational Climates in PE Three motivation climates (i.e., mastery, performance, and autonomy-supportive climates) serve as the contextual conditions in the analysis in addition to physical inclusion. The distinction

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Tao Zhang, Katherine T. Thomas, Xiaoxia Zhang and Xiangli Gu

) is a prominent theory for examining psychosocial and motivational factors in PE. SDT proposes that the fulfillment of basic psychological needs (BPNs; i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) is associated with more adaptive outcomes, including better physical and psychological well-being ( Ryan

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Leslie K. Larsen, Leslee A. Fisher, Terilyn C. Shigeno, Matthew P. Bejar and Melissa N. Madeson

use to exercise control over athletes. While Adler and Adler ( 1988 ) focused their research on the development of organizational loyalty within NCAA DI men’s athletics, Kimball ( 2007) examined both male and female student-athletes’ perceptions of autonomy in NCAA DI athletics. Kimball ( 2007

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Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves and Ken Hodge

and Deci ( 2000 ) developed the Basic Psychological Need Theory as a subtheory of SDT. Basic Psychological Need Theory states that autonomous motivation can be cultivated through supporting the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness within the PA context. Autonomy

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

determine whether individuals within these environments develop autonomous or controlled motivation ( Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). For example, when an exercise instructor behaves in a way that is supportive of the exercisers’ need to experience autonomy (i.e., feeling volitional and self-directed, behaving in

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Sara L. Nottingham

autonomously upon graduation. 1 , 2 , 4 – 6 Several authors have argued the importance of effective supervision of athletic training students and provided strategies for proper supervision. 3 , 7 , 8 Additionally, researchers recognize that giving responsibility and autonomy is an essential component of the