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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

-lasting exercise adherence are yet to be determined ( Hagger, & Chatzisarantis, 2016 ). Literature has highlighted the role of autonomy support, which is a set of intentional strategies to support individuals’ participation due to inherent interest instead of external control, in facilitating individuals

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Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells and Mi Ryoung Chung

leadership’s role in facilitating followers’ needs satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), which supports employee performance and therefore enhances long-term effectiveness of an organization ( Chiniara & Bentein, 2016 ). As outlined previously, many SDP organizations struggle to demonstrate

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

individual and contextual motivational conditions. Contextual Conditions: Perceived Motivational Climates in PE Three motivation climates (i.e., mastery, performance, and autonomy-supportive climates) serve as the contextual conditions in the analysis in addition to physical inclusion. The distinction

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Tao Zhang, Katherine T. Thomas, Xiaoxia Zhang and Xiangli Gu

) is a prominent theory for examining psychosocial and motivational factors in PE. SDT proposes that the fulfillment of basic psychological needs (BPNs; i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) is associated with more adaptive outcomes, including better physical and psychological well-being ( Ryan

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Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves and Ken Hodge

and Deci ( 2000 ) developed the Basic Psychological Need Theory as a subtheory of SDT. Basic Psychological Need Theory states that autonomous motivation can be cultivated through supporting the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness within the PA context. Autonomy

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

determine whether individuals within these environments develop autonomous or controlled motivation ( Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). For example, when an exercise instructor behaves in a way that is supportive of the exercisers’ need to experience autonomy (i.e., feeling volitional and self-directed, behaving in

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Sara L. Nottingham

autonomously upon graduation. 1 , 2 , 4 – 6 Several authors have argued the importance of effective supervision of athletic training students and provided strategies for proper supervision. 3 , 7 , 8 Additionally, researchers recognize that giving responsibility and autonomy is an essential component of the

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

, and integrated regulation; Ryan & Deci, 2017 ). The theory comprises a model for how environmental factors support or thwart people’s inherent and natural growth process through the satisfaction and frustration of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Satisfaction

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Cassidy Preston and Jessica Fraser-Thomas

to provide one of the first practical AGT-driven coaching programs, with promising results. SDT SDT proposes that athletes are intrinsically motivated when their three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 ) and that intrinsic (i.e., self

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Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy

( Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002 ). Figure 1 —Trans-contextual model of motivation. Adapted from Hagger et al. ( 2003) . Self-determination theory Self-determination motivation is achieved through the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000