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Joshua Woods

, 2002 ; Mowen et al., 2015 ; Payne, Mowen, & Orsega-Smith, 2002 ; Wolch & Zhang, 2004 ). Geography More is known about the geographical barriers to playing disc golf. The PDGA tracks the opening and closing of all disc-golf courses in the country. As expected, states with large populations, such as

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Fernando Borges

audiovisual services; at the same time they lowered the barriers to entering the media market for content producers. Although there are still elevated production and human-resources costs, through digital production, soccer clubs may vertically integrate the sport, media, and commercial activities in their

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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham

important than their male counterparts, and their achievements are less impressive ( McGregor & Melville, 1993/1994 ). The skewed media treatment leads to, and reinforces, barriers to participation for female athletes ( Mathesen & Flatten, 1996 ). ESPN’s decision to promote only male athletes on its

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Grace Yan, Ann Pegoraro and Nicholas M. Watanabe

, precisely because of the organizational capacity of social media, there has been the increasing implementation of structural barriers for college athletes to participate in activism. This can be witnessed from tightened policies and regulations developed by college athletic departments to monitor athletes

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Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells and Mi Ryoung Chung

forward . Quest, 69 ( 1 ), 125 – 139 . doi:10.1080/00336297.2016.1165123 10.1080/00336297.2016.1165123 Welty Peachey , J. , & Cohen , A. ( 2016 ). Research partnerships in sport for development and peace: Challenges, barriers, and strategies . Journal of Sport Management, 30 , 282 – 297 . doi

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Mark Dottori, Guy Faulkner, Ryan Rhodes, Norm O’Reilly, Leigh Vanderloo and Gashaw Abeza

agencies) noted that “the cost of enrollment is the largest barrier to sport participation with 90% of parents agree[ing] that organized sports are too expensive” ( Chubb, 2015 ). The coverage also reported that “Canadian families spend an average of $953 annually for one child to play in organized sport

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Robert J. Lake

rich. . . . The exclusive, upper-middle-class image of the game in this country is a disincentive and a barrier to opportunity. Similarly, Barry Flatman ( 2000 ) lamented, “Things could be so different if the Championships . . . became a little more accessible to the general public.” These and other

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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu

( Adams, 2017 ). The lessons learned over time and the manner in which the UFC continually adapts various aspects of MMA as an offering presents sport marketers with unique insight. The UFC has maneuvered political pressure, legislative barriers, negative public opinion, and changing consumer preferences

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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

community level, sport brings together, break downs barriers and unites those who may have nothing else in common. Sport has a unique ability to transcend race, religion, gender, and creed. It is truly a social cohesion” (p. 2). Some scholars, however, have noted that sport in relation to community

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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere

laboratory featured multiple gaming stations separated from each other by sound and visual barriers (e.g., headsets, cubicle walls). As mentioned previously, the SVG used in this research was Virtua Tennis 4 , created by Sega (Tokyo, Japan), and the game console used was the Sony PlayStation 3 (PS3, Tokyo