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Margaret Delaney, Meghan Warren, Brian Kinslow, Hendrik de Heer and Kathleen Ganley

multifactorial. For example, physical activity is associated with positive outcomes that may protect against disability or potentially disabling conditions, such as improvements in muscle strength, cardiovascular health and aerobic capacity, bone density, metabolic and inflammatory markers, body weight, strength

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JooYong Park, Aesun Shin, Miyoung Lee, Jaesung Choi, Minkyo Song, Yeonjung Kim, Jong-koo Lee, Daehee Kang and Ji-Yeob Choi

- Audiometry - Spirometry - Balance - Bone density and body composition - Chest - Knee and hip-joint x-ray Nutrition survey - Dietary behavior - Dietary supplement use - Food security - Food frequency and dietary intake Household survey - Household type - Housing type - Annual income Health behavior - Health

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis and Keith Davids

& Damiano, 1998 ), and reduced bone density ( Cohen et al., 2009 ). Few sports currently exist for those with a severe neurological disability, and these are often limited to low levels of aerobic demand and weight-bearing demands ( Van der Linden, Jahed, Tennant, & Verheul, 2018 ). One activity that is

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw and Marc Portus

doi:10.2165/00007256-200232010-00002 10.2165/00007256-200232010-00002 11772160 3. Dionyssiotis Y . Changes in Bone Density and Strength of the Tibia and Alterations of Lean and Fat Mass in Chronic Paraplegic Men . [Doctoral Dissertaion] Athens, GA : Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

dysfunction in dancers . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 21 , 119 – 125 . PubMed ID: 21358502 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182042a9a 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182042a9a Kaufman , B.A. , Warren , M.P. , Dominguez , J.E. , Wang , J. , Heymsfield , S.B. , & Pierson , R.N. ( 2002 ). Bone density and

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Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F. De Moraes, Alan R. Barker, Luis A. Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino and Luis Gracia-Marco

football players . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1999 ; 31 ( 9 ): 1350 – 6 . PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-199909000-00019 10487380 10.1097/00005768-199909000-00019 9. Damilakis J , Solomou G , Manios GE , Karantanas A . Pediatric radiation dose and risk from bone density measurements using a GE Lunar

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

, and depression. It is also fundamental to energy balance and weight control, positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength, and bone-loading physical activity increases bone mineral content and bone density. 4 Sport is one of the domains through which people can be physically

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin

, J.B. ( 1990 ). New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism . Nutrition, 6 ( 3 ), 213 – 221 . Wilson , G. , Hill , J. , Sale , C. , Morton , J.P. , & Close , G.L. ( 2015 ). Elite male Flat jockeys display lower bone density and lower

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Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory

, load-bearing capability of the tibia, bone density, and activity. 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 Unfortunately, most of the studies have been conducted on runners, with very little emphasis on the load bearing activities, such as jumping and landing that occur in other sports. Although pain in and around the site of

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Daniel Martin, Craig Sale, Simon B. Cooper and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

liver function 1 0.5 Effect on training/performance 2 0.9 Bloating 1 0.5 Reduced bloating 1 0.5 Hormone imbalance 1 0.5 Improved bone density 1 0.5 Increased appetite 1 0.5 Less faint 1 0.5 Stomach pain 1 0.5 Reduced fluctuations in water retention 1 0.5 Unspecified pain 1 0.5 Reduced fluctuations in