The purpose was to develop an evaluative case study of six 3-hr sessions, spaced over 3 months, of psychological skills training (PST) provided to athletes with an intellectual disability who were training for the Basketball Australia State Championships. Participants were 7 males and 7 females, aged 15.8 to 27.1 years, with a receptive language level of 7 to 13.7 years, 2 female coaches, 2 psychologists, and 1 registered psychologist supervisor. Sessions focused specifically on stress management, with primary attention given to cue words, breathing techniques, and positive thinking. Findings, based on interviews and participant observations, revealed that all participants believed that the PST was appropriate and worthwhile.
Trish Gorely, Anne Jobling, Kellie Lewis and David Bruce
Since 2010, major college athletics departments have expanded a trend of hiring former beat writers to the hybrid position of sportswriter/public relations (PR) practitioner. This case study explored the routines and roles of a former sportswriter in his PR position at the University of Washington. After observing how he moved through social and professional settings and occupational routines, the author identifies 3 themes surrounding his routines. The themes are sport journalist, PR practitioner, and subordinate. Given the historic antagonism between journalists and PR practitioners, the routines are sometimes at odds with one another. The results indicate that the routines affect content while engaging stakeholders.
Lauren Reichart Smith and Kenny D. Smith
This case study, using social-identity theory as a framework, examines how sport consumers and producers used different identifiers to engage in conversation during the final games of the 2012 College World Series of baseball. Five major hashtags were noted for each baseball team as primary identifiers; users fit in 3 main groups and subgroups. The analysis of tweets revealed 5 major themes around which the conversations primarily revolved. The study has implications for social-identity theory and team identification, as well as broader implications for audience fragmentation and notions of the community of sport.
Jeffrey W. Kassing and Jimmy Sanderson
This case study examines how fans can experience a major sporting event (cycling’s Tour of Italy) through a particular new communication technology platform—Twitter. To explore this possibility the authors tracked the “tweets” sent out by a selection of American and English-speaking riders during the 3-wk race. Their analysis of these texts revealed that Twitter served to increase immediacy between athletes and fans. This occurred as athletes provided commentary and opinions, fostered interactivity, and cultivated insider perspectives for fans. These activities position Twitter as a powerful communication technology that affords a more social vs. parasocial relationship between athletes and fans.
Dave Collins, Calvin Morriss and John Trower
Execution of the optimum technique is the basis of high-level performance in sport. Unfortunately, however, even well-established technique can be unintentionally lost, with disastrous results for achievement. The present case study describes the design, execution, and evaluation of an intervention to aid the recovery of optimum technique in an elite javelin thrower. Using contrast style drills, in association with mental skills to promote effective learning, the intervention worked on critical performance factors identified through three-dimensional kinematic analyses. Analysis of the performer’s technique at a recent major championship provided a comparison of these performance factors and, therefore, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention.
Kristi Sweeney, Megan Schramm-Possinger, Elizabeth A. Gregg and Harriet Stranahan
This case explores the potential implications of the National Football League’s (NFL) domestic violence problem. The purpose of this case study is to introduce students to logistic regression analysis. The case uses this method to address if the NFL’s Ray Rice domestic violence scandal will impact consumer behavior and loyalty toward the league. Given the significant role loyalty and retention has on profitability, the case investigates whether the Rice incident influenced fan decision-making, paying close attention to female consumers. The framework of analysis considers fan perceptions of the Ray Rice domestic violence scandal and the league’s response as potential deterrents of NFL game attendance and consumption of league media. Students will consider a variety of predictors, such as gender, age, and fan perception of the league’s domestic violence problem, in an attempt to yield insight into the possible influence of the Rice events on the commitment level of NFL fans. This case study is intended for use in research methods and assumes knowledge of regression analysis. However, in the event an instructor does not wish to run a logistic regression analysis, descriptive statistics could be used to detect patterns of responses that illustrate variance in fans’ perceptions of how consumer behavior may be affected by domestic violence issues.
Daniel Gould, Scott Pierce, Ian Cowburn and Andrew Driska
This case study examined the coaching philosophy of J Robinson, one of the most respected and successful NCAA wrestling coaches in the United States, and the founder of J Robison Intensive Wrestling Camps. Research has that shown that his camps foster short and long term psychological development in its youth participants (Driska et al., in press; Pierce, et al., 2016). He has established a well-delineated system for developing psychological skills in young athletes. The researchers were therefore interested in understanding the link between his coaching philosophy and coaching behavior, and in identifying factors that have influenced the development of this coaching philosophy over his lifetime. Using a case study approach, in-depth interviews at several points in time with Robinson were conducted. These were supplemented with interviews with camp staff and observations of the camp and Robinson’s coaching. Results revealed that Robinson had a clearly defined philosophy, was very intentional in developing mental skills, and had clearly thought out rationales that guided his coaching actions. The coaching philosophy and approach to developing psychological skills in youth evolved over 35 years of implementing these camps and from Robinson’s own life experiences. Implications for studying coach development and delivering coaching education are provided.
Lindy M. Rossow, David H. Fukuda, Christopher A. Fahs, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Jeffrey R. Stout
Bodybuilding is a sport in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance. This case study tracked a drug-free male bodybuilder (age 26–27 y) for the 6 mo before and after a competition.
The aim of this study was to provide the most comprehensive physiological profile of bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery ever compiled.
Cardiovascular parameters, body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, critical power, mood state, resting energy expenditure, and hormonal and other blood parameters were evaluated.
Heart rate decreased from 53 to 27 beats/min during preparation and increased to 46 beats/min within 1 mo after competition. Brachial blood pressure dropped from 132/69 to 104/56 mmHg during preparation and returned to 116/64 mmHg at 6 mo after competition. Percent body fat declined from 14.8% to 4.5% during preparation and returned to 14.6% during recovery. Strength decreased during preparation and did not fully recover during 6 months of recovery. Testosterone declined from 9.22 to 2.27 ng/mL during preparation and returned back to the baseline level, 9.91 ng/mL, after competition. Total mood disturbance increased from 6 to 43 units during preparation and recovered to 4 units 6 mo after competition.
This case study provides a thorough documentation of the physiological changes that occurred during natural bodybuilding competition and recovery.
E. William Vogler, Patricia Koranda and Tom Romance
The purpose was to examine an inclusive physical education kindergarten class containing a child with severe spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. An adapted physical educator served as a human resource. Participants were a kindergartner (6 years of age) with severe disability, 20 nondisabled peers (5-6 years of age), an adapted physical educator, and a regular physical educator. The research method was case study. Data were collected periodically by systematic observation and by interview during an 18-week period in the fall school semester. Twenty percent, or approximately one class per week (n = 19) were analyzed that were movement exploration in nature. Results indicated that inclusion classes were highly effective in time engagement and management, and the qualitative nature of inclusion was one of widespread social acceptance and successful motor participation. It was concluded that the use of a people resource model, with an adapted educator, is a highly effective educational practice.
Surveys suggest that 8 to 41% of athletes may struggle with binge/purge and bulimic eating behaviors. Many of these athletes with bulimia struggle alone, receiving no professional help for recovery. This article offers effective counseling strategies for nutrition professionals who want to help bulimic athletes. Through a case study of a triathlete who binges, and then purges through compulsive exercise, a nutrition care plan is discussed that addresses the food and weight concerns commonly expressed by athletes with bulimia. The priorities of the care plan are to reduce preoccupation with weight, establish a pattern of regular eating, and address the underlying causes of the binges. The case demonstrates that nutrition counseling is only one part of the treatment program, and emphasizes the importance of developing a team of health professionals to assist athletes with bulimia.