Depression, fatigue, irritability, confusion, and general mood disturbance are frequently reported after cerebral concussion in sport. Recent trends in research point to the importance of examining postconcussive emotional disturbances more thoroughly, empirically, and clinically. An overview of the complexity of human emotion and its study is provided herein, followed by a review of emotional correlates identified in the existing sparse literature. The significance and clinical implications of identifying emotional correlates of concussion in sport and athletics are discussed.
Lynda Mainwaring, Michael Hutchison, Paul Camper and Doug Richards
Lauren B. Sherar, Sean P. Cumming, Joey C. Eisenmann, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones and Robert M. Malina
The decline in physical activity (PA) across adolescence is well established but influence of biological maturity on the process has been largely overlooked. This paper reviews the limited number of studies which examine the relationship between timing of biological maturity and PA. Results are generally inconsistent among studies. Other health-related behaviors are also considered in an effort to highlight the complexity of relationships between biological maturation and behavior and to provide future research directions.
Lynn Dale Housner
Subjects (N = 29) classified as high or low visual imagers (highs and lows, respectively) viewed and reproduced six filmed examples of motoric stimuli constructed by combining a variety of leg, trunk, arm, and head movements. The motor stimuli represented three levels of complexity (4, 7, and 10 components) and two levels of orientation (model facing subject or facing away). Highs and lows were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) one viewing of the stimuli, or (b) two viewings of the stimuli. The experimental design was a 2×2×2× 3 (imagery ability x viewings X orientation x complexity) factorial with repeated measures on the third and fourth factors. Analysis of the data revealed significant main effects for imagery ability, F(l,25) = 6.41, p < .018, where highs reproduced the stimuli with less error than lows, and viewings, F(l,25) = 25.58, p < .001, where two viewings resulted in less recall error than one viewing. Also, the orientation by complexity interaction was found to be significant, F(2,50) = 25.51, p < .001, and indicated that recall accuracy was best when the model was facing away, but only for movement sequences of seven components. The findings suggest that visual imagery may play a role in the recall of modeled motoric stimuli.
Vicki Ebbeck and Maureen R. Weiss
Two issues regarding the arousal-performance relationship in sport were addressed in this study: the relationship between task complexity, optimal arousal, and maximal performance, and the appropriateness of using various measures of performance. Data were collected from high school athletes (n=51) across four track and field meets. State anxiety was obtained prior to each performance and three performance measures were obtained (event results, and quality of performance evaluated by the athlete and by the coach). Results indicated that the three performance measures were not equally related to A-state, suggesting that the relationship between arousal and performance results in a different description depending upon the performance measure that is used. Furthermore, degree of task complexity could not be distinguished across various track and field events. When individual events were used to examine the arousal-performance/task complexity relationship, results revealed that level of A-state needed for maximal performance could not be differentiated for specific events, nor could it be determined for above average, average, or below average performances on any one event.
William B. Karper and Thomas J. Martinek
This paper describes physical education research completed in a university-based laboratory over a 2-year period. The purpose of various laboratory projects was to study the complexities associated when integrating handicapped with nonhandicapped children. All of the work was focused on children in the kindgerten through third grades. Variables studied were motor performance, self-concept, teacher expectations, student effort (how hard a student tried during class), age, and social climates (competitive and noncompetitive atmospheres). Implications for teachers of physical education are drawn from investigation results.
Jeanne Adèle Kentel and David Ramsankar
Coaches are in a strong position to lay the groundwork for positive outcomes and attitudes in sports. In this paper we attempt to uncover ways in which coaching and sport pedagogy might be informed through our perspectives as parents of two young girls. As a father and a mother from two different families we examine the complexities of competition among the young. We begin to theorize about the ways young people might contribute to the discourse about competition in sport and ways coaches, coach educators and researchers might respond to enact potential reform.
This paper explores how young girls develop trust in their equine partners for the purposes of competitive equestrian sport. I argue that interspecies trust manifests through interactional trust and system trust. Interactional trust, as reflected in the horse-human relationship, is built through joint action and results in symbolic interaction. System trust is made possible through the equine community; it develops through communication in an effort to reduce complexity and uncertainty in society. To encourage and sustain youth participation in competitive equestrian sports both interactional trust and system trust are necessary.
Steven J. Jackson
This paper contributes to the recent debates concerning sport and the “Americanization” of culture with specific reference to Canada. The analysis focuses on the media’s role in articulating specific political, economic, and cultural events in order to construct a crisis of Canadian identity. In particular, this study examines how the 1988 marriage and trade of ice hockey star Wayne Gretzky were articulated within a discourse of crisis and specifically linked to an alleged threat of “Americanization.” It is asserted that a comprehensive understanding of Americanization must address its complexity beyond a simple case of cultural imperialism and should consider such issues as appropriation and strategic use to serve particular political interests.
Alison J. Armstrong-Doherty
Interuniversity athletic departments face an ever-increasing number and complexity of factors in their environment, which may impact on their organizational activities to varying degrees. The head athletic directors at 34 of the 45 (76%) Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union (CIAU) member institutions rated the degree of control of 15 environmental elements over seven basic activities of the athletic department. The athletic department was perceived to function relatively independent of broad environmental control, with the exception of establishing and supporting a philosophy of interuniversity athletics. It appears that perceived control is a multidimensional phenomenon that varies across the environmental elements and the activities of the athletic department.
Michael J. Asken
This paper discusses the delivery of sport psychology services to physically challenged (disabled) athletes. It begins with a description of the current status of athletic competition for physically disabled individuals. Commonalities in the sports experience of able-bodied and physically disabled athletes are addressed. Unique issues that must be considered for effective sport psychology consultations with disabled athletes are discussed. These include the background of physical and psychological trauma, altered physiological responses and medical problems, complexities in motivation to compete, unique performance problems, and the structure and organization of disabled sports. The article concludes with the effects of the social environment of disabled sports on the consultation process.