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Chunbo Liu

at the set value. The high precision (Accuracy ± 0.5%) power meter UPM209 Energy Analyser (Algodue Elettronica, Fontaneto d’Agogna, Italy) was used for monitoring the whole power of the training system. The upper computer was used for collecting data and controlling the eccentric trainer

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Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Joan Úbeda-Colomer, Jorge Lizandra, Carmen Peiró-Velert and José Devís-Devís

of time adolescents spent on daily screen media activities: TV viewing (including videos and DVDs), sedentary video games with a personal computer (PC), and sedentary video games with a console. This instrument has shown acceptable reliability and good validity has been previously described. 34 , 35

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Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn and Bart Roelands

psychobiological state characterized by an acute increase of subjective perceptions of effort and fatigue provoked by prolonged and demanding cognitive activity. 6 It involves processes such as vigilance and sustained attention and can be induced by cognitively demanding computer games or prolonged cognitive

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

bodybuilder nutrient intakes, the sample size suggested to detect a difference was n  = 16. In order to assure accuracy, the JMP computer software for data visualization and statistical analysis was used for all data analyses ( SAS Institute Inc., 1989–2007 ). Results In total, 90 subjects were sent the

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Katrina M. Moss, Annette J. Dobson, Kimberley L. Edwards, Kylie D. Hesketh, Yung-Ting Chang and Gita D. Mishra

/racquets/golf clubs, climbing equipment/trees, scooter/bicycle/tricycle, skateboard/ripstik, skipping rope, swimming pool, trampoline, and slide/swing. Mothers also reported the presence of 4 types of electronic play equipment in the child’s bedroom (television, computer/electronic games, mobile electronic device

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Glen M. Blenkinsop, Ying Liang, Nicholas J. Gallimore and Michael J. Hiley

positioned on top of the Stewart platform of a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment system (Motek Medical, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), which was used to create uphill and downhill slopes of 5° (Figure  2 ). Golfers wore their own golf shoes and glove. The order of shots was randomized across all

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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

. 16 Assessing tibiofemoral contact forces has been suggested as an essential approach to understand the initiation and progression of knee injuries and diseases. 18 Computer-simulated musculoskeletal models are often used to estimate tibiofemoral contact forces during various movements. 19 , 20

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Valerie Carson, Amanda E. Staiano and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

The purpose of this study was to describe self-reported levels of sitting, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), television viewing, and computer use in a representative sample of US adolescents and to make comparisons between sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and age groups. Results are based on 3556 adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants self-reported demographic, sitting, MVPA, television viewing (2011-2012 only) and computer use (2011-2012 only) variables. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. On average, 7.5 hr/day were spent sitting and 34 median min/day were spent participating in MVPA, with females sitting more and participating in less MVPA than males across most demographic groups. Furthermore, obese males sat more and participated in less MVPA than nonoverweight males. Non-Hispanic white females participated in more MVPA than females in all other race/ethnicity groups. For television and computer, 38% and 22% of the sample engaged in >2 hr/day, respectively, and several race/ethnicity differences were observed. This study provides the first U.S. adolescent population estimates on self-reported sitting and updates population estimates on self-reported MVPA, television viewing and computer use. Continued efforts are needed to promote healthy active lifestyles in American adolescents.

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Scott Owens, Laurel Lambert, Suzanne McDonough, Kenneth Green and Mark Loftin

This pilot study examined the feasibility of an interactive obesity prevention program delivered to a class of fourth-grade students utilizing daily e-mail messages sent to the students’ home computers. The study involved a single intact class of 22 students, 17 (77%) of whom submitted parental permission documentation and received e-mail messages each school day over the course of one month. Concerns regarding Internet safety and children’s use of e-mail were addressed fairly easily. Cost/benefit issues for the school did not seem prohibitive. Providing e-mail access to students without a home computer was accomplished by loaning them personal digital assistant (PDA) devices. In larger interventions, loaning PDAs is probably not feasible economically, although cell phones may be an acceptable alternative. It was concluded that this type of interactive obesity prevention program is feasible from most perspectives. Data from a larger scale effectiveness study is still needed.

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Colin Higgs

A computer model was developed of the aerodynamic drag forces acting to slow down a wheelchair. The model calculated drag forces over a range of wheeling speeds between 2 and 20 m/sec, and for wind conditions over the same range of speeds with wind direction varied between 0° (headwind) and 180° (tailwind). The computer model suggests that the large lateral area of a wheelchair adds considerably to the retarding drag forces at relative wind angles between 0 and 90°. It further suggests that three-wheeled wheelchairs have a considerable aerodynamic advantage over four-wheeled wheelchairs for a wide range of wind speeds and directions. In straight line races, the four-wheeled wheelchair has a slight aerodynamic advantage when the relative wind angle exceeds 90°, but under other speed and wind conditions in this study the three-wheeled wheelchair was more efficient.