The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, type of sport, motives, and points of attachment to a team for spectators of selected intercollegiate sports. The significant MANOVA results indicated that gender explained 2% of the variance in motives and 3% of the variance in points of attachment; type of sport explained 4% and 7% of the variance in motives and points of attachment, respectively. A canonical correlation analysis suggested three significant and meaningful variates, which together showed a shared variance between motives and points of attachment in excess of 70%. This suggests that collegiate marketers and managers might want to design their marketing communications to emphasize the relationships among motives and points of attachment rather than trying to segment their fan and spectator base by gender or by type of sport.
Matthew J. Robinson and Galen T. Trail
Aubrey Kent and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study tested the propositions that (a) perceived leader-member exchange quality (LMX) between second level managers (e.g., associate, assistant athletic directors) and their subordinates would be associated with perceived transformational leadership behaviors (TL) of the athletic director, and (b) subordinates' organizational commitment (OC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) would be correlated with both perceived TL and LMX. Seventy-five third tier employees of a large Midwestern university responded to the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire-MLQ (Bass, 1985); LMX-7 (Graen, Novak, & Sommerkamp, 1982), an organizational citizenship scale (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter, 1991); and an organizational commitment scale (Meyer & Allen, 1997). Correlational and regression analyses showed that the three dimensions of TL were significantly correlated with LMX. Additionally, the dimensions of TL and LMX were differentially related to OC and OCB.
Joanne C. MacLean and Packianathan Chelladurai
The purpose of this study was to define the dimensions of coaching performance for coaches and to develop a scale to measure those dimensions. The literature-based model used in this study espoused the use of three broad categories—behavioral product factors, behavioral process factors related to the task, and behavioral process factors related to maintenance of the organization. Each of these broad categories was further subdivided into two classes to yield a model of six dimensions of coaching performance. The dimensions explored were (a) team products, (b) personal products, (c) direct task behaviors, (d) indirect task behaviors, (e) administrative maintenance behaviors, and (f) public relations behaviors. Seventy-seven administrators and 363 coaches from Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union institutions responded to the coaching performance scale for the purposes of this study. Item-to-total correlations, confirmatory factor analysis, and internal consistency estimates supported the conceptual model and yielded a psychometrically sound Scale of Coaching Performance (SCP).
Margie A. Weaver and Packianathan Chelladurai
Associate/Assistant athletic administrators from Division I (139 males, 123 females) and Division III (130 males, 123 females) universities of the NCAA responded to a questionnaire consisting of (a) items eliciting background information, (b) perceived and preferred mentoring functions measured by the Mentor Role Instrument (Ragins & McFarlin, 1990), (c) perceived barriers to mentoring measured by Perceived Barriers Scale (Ragins & Cotton, 1991), and a scale of satisfaction developed for the study. Factor analysis yielded three facets of satisfaction: Work Group, Extrinsic Rewards, and Intrinsic Rewards. The results of MÁNOVA showed that an equal proportion of males and females had experienced mentoring relationships, and mentored individuals were more satisfied with work than their non-mentored counterparts. Respondents from Division I received significantly higher salaries, and they were more satisfied with their extrinsic rewards than the respondents from Division III. Finally, correlational analyses showed positive but weak relationships between mentoring functions and the satisfaction facets.
Rasmus K. Storm and Ulrik Wagner
Sports scandals are often discussed in the media and research literature without any deeper reflection on their specificities or development. As the economic and political significance of sport seem to grow in correlation with the development of globalization and new social media, the call for a sociological understanding of the downsides of sport becomes imperative. By deploying a communication-theory framework supplemented with insights from discourse theory, this article aims to develop a theoretical model of the sports scandal. It presents a 5-step model encompassing initial steps of transgression, followed by a publicly observed dislocation destabilizing the social order, which subsequently results in moral communication, environmental pressure for appropriate action, and, finally, an institutional solution.
Alison J. Armstrong-Doherty
Organizational autonomy of the interuniversity athletic department, university responsibility for athletics, and pressure from nonuniversity individuals, groups, and organizations are all concerns related to the department's dependence on various sources in its environment for financial support. The Emerson (1962) power-dependence theory of social exchange relations, and its adaptation to the study of organization-environment relations (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978; Thompson, 1967), guided an examination of funding and control in Canadian university athletics. This study examined whether athletic departments are perceived to be controlled by the funding sources in their environment according to their relative resource dependence upon those sources. Financial resource dependence and perceived control data were obtained from athletic directors (ADs) at 34 Canadian universities. Significant Spearman rank order correlations reveal the resource dependence-based perceived control of the university central administration, corporate sponsors, and provincial/federal sport organizations and ministries (p < .05). Of these, however, only central administration was perceived to have considerable control over the departments. Nevertheless, ADs should be aware of the resource dependence-based control potential of these other sources.
Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik
structure of variability. Assessment of variability structure generally involves: (1) identifying a signal’s correlation structure, (2) determining signal characteristics in the frequency domain, or (3) estimating the correlation structure by quantifying the power law statistical correlations of
Liz Wanless and Jeffrey L. Stinson
. Fourteen articles met the analysis criteria. Researchers standardized the effect sizes from reported correlations, t ratios, and F ratios and accounted for the sample size. On-field athletic success emerged as a small, but positive and significant, predictor of contributions. The giving target (whether
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
hot and cold or incredibly happy and sad simultaneously ( Russell & Carroll, 1999 ). Watson and Tellegen’s ( 1985 ) Circumplex Model, for example, positions the activation of negativity and positivity as independent, and that feelings such as pleasantness and unpleasantness have a negative correlation
Howard N. Zelaznik
there was a significant correlation between timing perception and timing variability in tapping. Third, there was a significant correlation between the timing of the pause in intermittent circle drawing and timing in tapping as well as in timing discrimination. Individuals who were sensitive to smaller