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Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch

(winning two gold and three silver medals) or Norwegians Marit Björgen (cross-country skiing, three gold medals) and Ole Einar Björndalen (biathlon, two gold medals), whose victories in Sochi made them the most successful winter athletes ever ( Angelini et al., 2017 ). Hong and Oh ( 2017 ) further explore

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Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse

from before entering university (ie, their time in their final grade of high school) compared with university (measured at the end of their first academic year), among males and females. Endurance activities included biking, cross-country skiing, floor hockey, jogging/running, ice skating, in

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

was shown to be equally effective, when repeated, 24 hr apart, to enhance the performance of two cross-country ski time-trials ( Stadheim et al., 2014 ). This benefit occurred despite increased muscle damage and soreness from the first bout, attributed to the greater exercise effort made possible by

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

, basketball, cross country skiing, judo, roller skating, vigorous swimming, vigorous long distance bicycling)   _________ [Record times per week]   _________ [Record minutes per time] b  b) Moderate exercise (not exhausting)    (e.g., fast walking, baseball, tennis, easy bicycling, volleyball, badminton

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Thomas A. Perks

, skating , downhill skiing , jogging or running , golfing , exercise class or aerobics , cross-country skiing , bowling , baseball or softball , tennis , weight training , fishing , volleyball , yoga , or tai chi , and up to 3 other activities. Minor changes were made to this list of

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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright and Carine Smith

ergogenic effect under actual competition and field conditions, when additional factors come into play. This is supported by the similarly small performance benefit (∼4%) reported for an 8-km cross-country skiing time trial after ingestion of an identical dose to the one used in this study ( Stadheim et

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

prevented her from being regularly employed. In addition to her mild ID, Kate was diagnosed with mild hearing loss during a Special Olympics screening 4 years prior to the study. Approximately, 6 months prior to the study, she was involved in a Special Olympics cross-country ski program, but her interest in

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Joshua Woods

throughout life in low-impact sports and recreation such as swimming, walking, fishing, cross-country skiing, and disc golf ( Son, Kerstetter, & Mowen, 2008 ). Some evidence suggests that disc golf attracts participants from all age groups. For instance, the 2017 State of Disc Golf Survey showed that almost

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

numerous exercise modalities (i.e., cycling, running, rowing, cross-country skiing, and swimming). Studies reporting benefits typically used caffeine dosages of 3–6 mg/kg of body mass (BM), in the form of anhydrous caffeine (i.e., pill or powder form), consumed ∼60 min prior to exercise ( Ganio et

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Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

rhytmic movement . Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum . Lamb , P.F. , Bartlett , R.M. , Lindinger , S. , & Kennedy , G. ( 2014 ). Multi-dimensional coordination in cross-country skiing analyzed using self-organizing maps . Human Movement Science, 33 , 54 – 69 . PubMed ID: 24060219 doi:10.1016/j