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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright and Carine Smith

ergogenic effect under actual competition and field conditions, when additional factors come into play. This is supported by the similarly small performance benefit (∼4%) reported for an 8-km cross-country skiing time trial after ingestion of an identical dose to the one used in this study ( Stadheim et

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

of 424 coaches ( n male  = 306, n female  = 103, and n missing  = 15) aged 19–71 years ( M  = 42.25, SD  = 10.10) participated in the study. They came from a variety of sport backgrounds including basketball, boxing, cross-country skiing, diving, figure skating, football, gymnastics, hockey

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

numerous exercise modalities (i.e., cycling, running, rowing, cross-country skiing, and swimming). Studies reporting benefits typically used caffeine dosages of 3–6 mg/kg of body mass (BM), in the form of anhydrous caffeine (i.e., pill or powder form), consumed ∼60 min prior to exercise ( Ganio et

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

, basketball, cross country skiing, judo, roller skating, vigorous swimming, vigorous long distance bicycling)   _________ [Record times per week]   _________ [Record minutes per time] b  b) Moderate exercise (not exhausting)    (e.g., fast walking, baseball, tennis, easy bicycling, volleyball, badminton

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

was shown to be equally effective, when repeated, 24 hr apart, to enhance the performance of two cross-country ski time-trials ( Stadheim et al., 2014 ). This benefit occurred despite increased muscle damage and soreness from the first bout, attributed to the greater exercise effort made possible by

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. Method. Birth dates were collected across 4-month periods (T1, T2 and T3) from Swedish athletes in different sports including cross-country skiing (N = 136 387), athletics (N = 14 503), orienteering (N = 41 164), alpine skiing (N = 502), chess (N = 4 900) and E-sport (N = 47 030). The distribution of

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

of elite sports, including cross-country skiing and biathlon, 21 , 22 cycling, 23 – 26 kayaking, 27 , 28 orienteering, 29 sprinting, 30 swimming, 31 , 32 and tennis. 33 Depending on the event and the prevailing philosophies in a sport, coaches and athletes may plan for single, double, or

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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

judging criterion is based on a numeric value such as distance run, weight lifted, or time elapsed, or where competition is head to head with an opposing team. This category included all sports reported that were not classified as aesthetic sports (i.e., crew, cross country, skiing, swimming, track and

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

prevented her from being regularly employed. In addition to her mild ID, Kate was diagnosed with mild hearing loss during a Special Olympics screening 4 years prior to the study. Approximately, 6 months prior to the study, she was involved in a Special Olympics cross-country ski program, but her interest in