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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

were conducted in developed countries (United States, The Netherlands, and Canada) with high rates of human development. Extrapolations to middle-income and low-income countries should be made with caution because these countries have limitations related to accessibility of individuals with mobility

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Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons

particularly in less developed countries. Historically, the food program at the Olympic Games has evolved considerably since the advent of a unified menu in 1972 ( Pelly et al., 2011 ), but it appears that the capacity to cater for the expanding cultural and sporting diversity and the growing evidence around

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Cecilia del Campo Vega, Veronica Tutte, Gustavo Bermudez and Diana C. Parra

A current public health priority is to promote physical activity (PA), 1 especially considering the high prevalence of physical inactivity in both developed and developing countries. 2 One of the strategies to increase the level of PA that has been gaining support and popularity is the

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Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam and Eun-Cheol Park

Physical activity (PA) is important for preventing chronic disease, 1 and the level of PA in childhood is especially important, as it can be a predictor of PA in adulthood. 2 Nevertheless, PA levels of adolescents have gradually decreased as sedentary lifestyle has spread across developed

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Patrick Abi Nader, Lina Majed, Susan Sayegh, Lama Mattar, Ruba Hadla, Marie Claire Chamieh, Carla Habib Mourad, Elie-Jacques Fares, Zeina Hawa and Mathieu Bélanger

Among Middle Eastern countries, Lebanon is considered a high developing country (high development index = 0.763) and uses 3.0% of its total gross domestic product on public health expenditure. 7 By 2020, Lebanon is expected to have a population greater than 6 million, a population density of 588

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

Overweight and obese children have now become a public health problem both in European countries and in other developed countries ( Ahrens et al., 2014 ). Lobstein et al. ( 2015 ) have shown that in about 30 years in the United States, the body mass of each child has increased by 5 kg on average

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Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) represents an increasing burden in developed countries ( Arden & Nevitt, 2006 ). Progression of knee OA is usually assessed using radiographic scores such as the Kellgren & Lawrence scale (K&L-score) ( Kellgren & Lawrence, 1957 ). Radiographic scores correlate to some

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Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren

multiple approaches and strategies. Challenge: A Shift of Focus on Health and Functioning Alongside these developments, functioning (as conceptualized by WHO 2002 ; Heerkens et al., 2017 )—besides health—has, in recent years, become all the more important in Western and developing countries. This focus

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Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton

designed to assess PA engagement comprehensively in these domains via a more relevant format, particularly for developing countries where patterns of energy expenditure differ from high-income countries. 19 Since their inception, these 2 standardized self-report tools have been widely used to monitor

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Peng Zhang, Jung Eun Lee, David F. Stodden and Zan Gao

among children in both developed and developing countries. 17 , 19 Despite increasing empirical evidence concerning time segment differences in children’s PA during weekdays and weekends, correlates and determines of PA in children have not been explored adequately. For example, data focused on