The present investigation reports on the reliability and validity of several scales derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM). Both their internal consistency and their ability to predict self-reported sport and physical activity participation among younger and older adults are examined. As an exploratory endeavor, new, internally consistent scales were developed to assess several HBM factors. Results of age-group comparisons as well as comparisons across levels of diversity in several types of self-reported physical activity suggest that the newly developed measures differentiate between individuals on the basis of age and degrees of diversity in activity.
Bert Hayslip Jr., Daniel Weigand, Robert Weinberg, Peggy Richardson and Allen Jackson
Trevor Slack and Bob Hinings
Increased interest in organizational change (i.e., shifts in an organization's structure, strategy, and processes) has led to considerable diversity in the theoretical approaches used to explain the phenomenon. This theoretical diversity has caused some scholars to suggest that a more complete understanding of organizational phenomena such as change is obtained when different theoretical perspectives are used in conjunction with one another. This paper examines a process of change that has been occurring in Canadian national sport organizations. Utilizing the theoretical approaches found in work on resource dependence theory, institutional theory, organizational culture, and the role of transformational leaders in managing change, the paper shows how these approaches explain different aspects of the change process. It also shows how a more complete understanding of change may be gained by using more than one theoretical perspective.
Alexandra J. Rankin-Wright, Kevin Hylton and Leanne Norman
The article examines how UK sport organizations have framed race equality and diversity, in sport coaching. Semistructured interviews were used to gain insight into organizational perspectives toward ‘race’, ethnicity, racial equality, and whiteness. Using Critical Race Theory and Black feminism, color-blind practices were found to reinforce a denial that ‘race’ is a salient factor underpinning inequalities in coaching. The dominant practices employed by key stakeholders are discussed under three themes: equating diversity as inclusion; fore fronting meritocracy and individual agency; and framing whiteness. We argue that these practices sustain the institutional racialised processes and formations that serve to normalize and privilege whiteness. We conclude that for Black and minoritised ethnic coaches to become key actors in sport coaching in the UK ‘race’ and racial equality need to be centered in research, policy and practice.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Joanne MacLean
As the new millennium begins, we find intercollegiate sport in Canadian universities at a crossroads. Although the Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union (CIAU), the governing body for university sport in Canada, has a history of recurring issues and challenges, further change is imminent. This paper provides the perspective of two Canadian intercollegiate athletic administrators and sport management academicians on the future of intercollegiate sport in Canada by focusing on five major areas of concern: (a) diversity, (b) governance, (c) funding of athletics, (d) the role and value of athletics, and (e) the changing environmental context of the university. The authors conclude that university sport in Canada will remain embedded within the non-profit, amateur fabric of the Canadian sporting milieu characterized by a participant rather than spectator focus, men's sport domination, decreased funding sources, and pressures to justify its role and value within a rapidly changing environment. The diversity evident throughout the CIAU will continue to have a compelling impact on the organization.
Lisa M. Van Landuyt, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello
Traditional conceptions of the exercise–affect relationship postulate that moderate-intensity exercise leads to positive affective changes in all or most individuals, and it can, therefore, be prescribed for all individuals involved in exercise programs. This study investigated whether this assumption is true, not only at the level of group averages but also at the level of individuals. Affect was assessed before, during, and after a session of moderate-intensity cycle ergometry using a dimensional conceptualization of affect. Examination of individual responses revealed a diversity of patterns that was masked by aggregate-based analyses. Mean ratings of affective valence were shown to remain stable during exercise, but in actuality almost half of the individuals experienced progressive improvement, whereas the other half experienced progressive deterioration. The diversity of individual affective responses must be taken into account in formulating conceptual models of the exercise–affect relationship and deriving public health physical activity recommendations.
Derek A. Swain
The present study involved three in-depth interviews with 10 informants who had voluntarily withdrawn from hockey, horse racing, football, and racquet-ball. The personal histories of the informants were examined for diversity and commonality of experience. A synthesized description of career change experience was written as a general story, identifying a sequence of experiential units that reflect the shifts in focus within the common experience. The general story indicated that withdrawal from sport was not simply an event but a process that began soon after the athletes became engaged in their career. This study supports and extends a model proposed by Schlossberg (1984) which attempts to account for diversity in the experience of transitions. The model is considered helpful in developing an understanding of the process of a transitional experience such as retirement from sport, considering the context in which the experience takes place, the meaning it has for the individual, and how it changes over time.
An introductory course in sport management should provide the student in the program with a basic understanding of the sport industry. However, the opinions of sport management educators vary as to what should be included in the introductory course. This diversity of opinions regarding course content is reflected in the texts that have been written for use in the introductory course. Each book has its own unique objective and range of topics (Chella-durai, 1985; Lewis & Appenzeller, 1987; Parkhouse, 1992; Parks & Zanger, 1991).
Stephanie J. Hanrahan
A group of students from the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts participated in a mental skills training program that focused on goal setting, self-confidence development, and team building. There were 13 two-hour sessions held over a 20-week period. The participants, cultural issues, and the basic structure of the program are described. The author’s observations regarding competition, displays of affection, collective values, and the importance of family and nature are provided. The participants qualitatively evaluated the program. Conclusions related to group process, program structure, and diversity are presented. These conclusions should be of value in terms of shaping future group mental skills training programs.
Dominique Banville, Pauline Desrosiers and Yvette Genet-Volet
With the rise of cultural diversity in populations, researchers are faced with new issues, such as working with participants from other cultures that speak different languages. This research note presents a methodology developed by Vallerand (1989) in the psychological field that translates and validates questionnaires and inventories developed for a specific culture. This cross-cultural technique has seven steps and insures that the instrument will provide data that are valid and reliable in the targeted population. The seven steps are defined, and examples of results from a study using this methodology are provided.
Phillip Ward, Sue Sutherland, Marianne L. Woods, B. Ann Boyce, Grace Goc Karp, Michael Judd, Melissa Parker, G. Linda Rikard and Christina Sinclair
In this paper, we situate the findings from the studies in this thematic issue within the current policy environment that influences the status, rankings, and funding contexts for doctoral programs in Physical Education Teacher Education within and across institutions. We identify common challenges that these doctoral programs are confronted with including the recruitment of doctoral students, the lack of diversity of faculty and students, the purpose of the doctoral degree, and core content knowledge for the degree. Throughout the discussion we provide questions and recommendations for the field to consider.