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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

in growing tissues) for adolescent populations with different levels of physical activity and/or training have been published ( Torun, 2005 ). It appears that low energy availability (EA) in adolescent athletes undertaking heavy training is common ( Muia et al., 2016 ). This may lead to a number of

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

calories too severely, particularly below 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass, which would be roughly equivalent to resting metabolic rate for most people ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). For example, in natural male body builders, prolonged low energy availability can result in loss of LBM, hormonal imbalances

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Taylor K. Wise

athletic trainers), be educated on energy availability, healthy eating, nutrition, and the risks of dieting so that they are better able to detect unhealthy eating behaviors and explore treatment options ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Another risk specific to athletes is that DE can be maintained by approval

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

endocrine profiles involved in growth and repair ( Dolan et al., 2012b ). Key hormones related to bone metabolism, such as testosterone, cortisol, and vitamin D, may be downregulated at times of low energy availability to allow the body to conserve energy for essential processes ( Dolan et al., 2011 ). Yet

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer

were set at E (1 g·kg −1  BM·day −1 ), M (1.5 g·kg −1  BM·day −1 ), and H (2 g·kg −1  BM·day −1 ). Energy It is difficult to give general recommendations for the EI in athletes due to individual variability and the differential nature of the sport. In addition, a minimum energy availability (EA) is

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler

requirement and supply found in many of these studies can lead to low energy availability with consequences to athletes’ performance and health ( da Silva Gomes et al., 2005 , 2006 ; Eskici & Ersoy, 2016 ; Goosey-Tolfrey & Crosland, 2010 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). However, no study with para athletes

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bike-pack trip through South America. Conclusions.— Unexpected fractures in endurance athletes should prompt evaluation for underlying medical conditions. While low energy availability, secondary amenorrhea, and low bone density are common in endurance athletes, rare medical conditions should also be

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Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones

). Finally, the athlete also reported no symptoms of illness across the intervention period, attending all 61 training sessions. Collectively, these results suggest that the average 24.5 MJ daily energy intake of the athlete, although 0.6 MJ less than targeted, was sufficient to meet energy availability

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

adequate energy availability unless a separate strategy is undertaken to manipulate this. BM = body mass; CHO = carbohydrate; IMTG = intramuscular triglycerides; PDH = pyruvate dehydrogenase; LCHF = low-carbohydrate high-fat diet; K-LCHF = ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat diet; NK-LCHF = nonketogenic

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

detrimental effects on growth and maturation due to sustained periods of low energy availability ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, RWL is associated with abnormal eating behaviors ( Oppliger et al., 2003 ), and weight-category athletes display a higher prevalence of eating disorders ( Sundgot