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Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith and Tertius A. Kohn

individuals are experimenting with LCHF diets because of body composition and/or to improve fat oxidation ( Gregory et al., 2017 ; Michalczyk et al., 2018 ; Volek et al., 2016 ; Webster et al., 2016 ). However, LCHF diets are partly controversial because many commonly eaten LCHF foods have been implicated

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

et al., 2019a ) were recorded every 15 min during SS. Capillary blood glucose concentration was measured before and every 30 min during SS (Accu-Chek Performa; Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Total nonprotein carbohydrate and fat oxidation was measured every 30 min using breath

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

 al., 2017 ), although they are used in real-world practice ( Stellingwerff, 2012 ). Nonketogenic low-CHO high-fat (NK-LCHF) diet • Dietary plan in which CHO availability is chronically (days/weeks/months) maintained below muscle CHO needs to promote adaptations favoring fat oxidation, but with sufficient

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

glucose, provides an effective and dominant fuel source for performance across a wide variety of events in athletics ( Hawley & Leckey, 2015 ). Indeed, it has been known for nearly a century that 100% CHO produces ∼5.5% more ATP per liter of oxygen consumed than compared with 100% fat oxidation ( Krogh

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Kyle S. Beyer, Jeffrey R. Stout, Michael J. Redd, Kayla M. Baker, Haley C. Bergstrom, Jay R. Hoffman and David H. Fukuda

concentrations of the oxidative enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase than adults ( 19 ). The increased reliance on aerobic metabolism in prepubescent children compared with adults is reflected by greater fat oxidation ( 33 ). Moreover, previous studies have reported higher peak fat

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efforts. Alleged performance benefits are attributed to optimized fat oxidation. However, recent data demonstrates that a low carb, high fat diet (LCHF) leads to an impaired performance and less efficient energy metabolism in elite endurance athletes. The aim of the study was to analyze the alteration of

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established that ketogenic dietary interventions increase fat oxidation during endurance running. Its translation to ultra-endurance performance is not substantiated. Conversely, carbohydrate provisions before and during endurance exercise is well established. The aim of this study was to explore carbohydrate

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

). Differences in gastrointestinal discomfort, blood glucose, lactate and rates of carbohydrate, and fat oxidation were assessed between treatments and across time using a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Following a significant interaction, Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to locate

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

cava ( Oh et al., 2010 ). The lower blood lactate values in 4DAY were likely the result of increased lactate clearance and/or reduced lactate production. With respect to the latter explanation, lactate production may have been reduced due to an anthocyanin-induced increase in fat oxidation. At a

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

, differ between men and women across different sports is currently unknown. Energy Utilization It has been proposed that larger fat stores in the muscles of women and their ability to rely more on fat oxidation are advantageous in connection with ultramarathon races. 33 In addition, the high rates of fat