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established that ketogenic dietary interventions increase fat oxidation during endurance running. Its translation to ultra-endurance performance is not substantiated. Conversely, carbohydrate provisions before and during endurance exercise is well established. The aim of this study was to explore carbohydrate

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

, differ between men and women across different sports is currently unknown. Energy Utilization It has been proposed that larger fat stores in the muscles of women and their ability to rely more on fat oxidation are advantageous in connection with ultramarathon races. 33 In addition, the high rates of fat

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

cava ( Oh et al., 2010 ). The lower blood lactate values in 4DAY were likely the result of increased lactate clearance and/or reduced lactate production. With respect to the latter explanation, lactate production may have been reduced due to an anthocyanin-induced increase in fat oxidation. At a

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Ed Maunder, Andrew E. Kilding, Christopher J. Stevens and Daniel J. Plews

decrease Very likely decrease 2.26 1.38 Unclear Unclear Fat oxidation, b g·min −1 IM1 IM2 0.68 0.97 0.80 1.19 Possible increase Very likely increase 0.85 1.17 Unclear Unclear Gross efficiency, b % IM1 IM2 21.8 21.4 22.0 21.0 Unclear Possible decrease 21.3 21.9 Possible decrease Possible increase HR, b b

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

expenditure = { 4.686 + [ ( RER − 0.707 ) / 0.293 ] × 0.361 } × VO 2 Fat oxidation = ( 1.67 × VO 2 ) − ( 1.67 × VCO 2 ) Carbohydrate oxidation = ( 4.55 × VCO 2 ) − ( 3.21 × VO 2 ) Blood Treatment and Analyses Blood samples were immediately transferred into K 2 EDTA-containing tubes and centrifuged at 4000 rpm

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

fat oxidation . Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 34 ( 1 ), 92 – 97 . PubMed ID: 11782653 doi:10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015 Areta , J.L. , & Hopkins , W.G. ( 2018 ). Skeletal muscle glycogen content at rest and during endurance exercise in humans: A

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Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber and Renate M. Leithäuser

cadences at low-exercise-intensity training, which is frequently seen in high-performance cyclists, may increase fat oxidation combined with preservation of CHO at given metabolic rates and/or BLC levels. However, the previously observed within-subjects effects of set differences in rpm on MLSS (1.1 ± 0

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

needed to confirm no differences between the sexes. A recent study by Strauss et al. ( 2018 ) replicated for females findings by Cook, Myers, Gault, Edwards and Willems ( 2017a ) in males of increased fat oxidation by NZBC during 120-min cycling at 65% V ˙ O 2 max ; therefore, increased exercise

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

sprints, euglycemia and improved fat oxidation were again observed ( Baur et al., 2016 ). Serum glucose was 20% lower prior to exercise, compared to a sucrose/glucose supplement. Of note, consumption of starch at rates of 30 and 60 g/h was associated with nausea and abdominal cramps. Digestive symptoms

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger and Jamie Stanley

.55 (−0.98 to −0.12) b  GE, % 19.8 (0.9) 19.8 (0.8) 0.08 (−0.22 to 0.39) 19.4 (1.3) 20.2 (1.0) 0.55 (0.13 to 0.96) b  EE, kcal·min −1 15.3 (1.7) 15.4 (1.8) −0.16 (−0.22 to 0.22) 15.2 (1.3) 15.3 (1.5) 0.05 (−0.13 to 0.22)  Fat oxidation, g·min −1 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0.2) −0.21 (−0.77 to 0.35) 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0